Radiation and its effects on the human body
Black fan, which is depicted on a bright yellow background, is a common designation of the radioactive hazard. This icon is marked, all objects that bear the risk of infecting the plants, the location of various burials of radioactive waste, laboratories and some equipment that is used in medical facilities. Radioactive radiation is capable of killing thousands of kilometers around. Those organisms that are not killed, they begin to mutate due to changes in the cells.
Ways of infection
If the person is in the zone of action of radiation, he always gets infected. There are the following types of radiation:
- An external source of radioactive radiation that comes from space objects, of the particles of the natural radioactive substances or degradation products of the particles. A similar danger can arise when serious accidents at nuclear power plants or in the testing of new models of nuclear weapons. In this case, the dose of the received radiation consists of gamma rays, x-ray and beta-elements of a great energy.
- Internal source – the infection is called radioactive substances that penetrate into the middle of the body – with food, water, inhaled air. In addition, it may occur through wounds on the skin.
Internal exposure threatens more danger to living beings and causing very serious consequences. The reason is that penetrated into the middle of the radioactive atoms interact closely with the infected tissues and the period of their exposure is only limited by the residence time in humans.
It is important to remember that all methods of decontamination that apply to external exposure, it is not effective when internal source.
Features external and internal exposure
External radiation affects people only during their stay in the contaminated area. The danger is amplified because of its location in the field of radiation neurons. It is tiny particles that don't have their own electrical charge, but pass freely into the nucleus of atoms. The result is the atoms of other radioactive substances. Due to this property observed secondary source of infection.
The radiation exerts a pathogenic effect on all the cells of the human body. It affects all organs and important systems. Sometimes it is enough to stay in the exposure zone a matter of minutes to receive a dose of radiation incompatible with life.
To measure the level of radiation using a special device called dosimeter. It allows you to accurately determine the background level in a particular place.
The effect of radiation on the human body
Radioactive radiation is a very aggressive environment, which causes severe changes in all cells. Individual radioactive elements, once in the body through the skin, penetrate into the bloodstream and then is transferred to some authorities, where a local radioactive source.
Summary of the penetration of radiation through the inhalation of contaminated air depends on the size of dangerous particles. A almost immediately go together with the man exhaled air, with the exception of are only the atoms that enter into chemical reaction with the bone tissue. These elements include zirconium, plutonium and uranium.
The effect of radioactive radiation on the human body manifests these disorders:
- External irradiation provokes skin burns and damage to mucous membranes, various forms of gravity.
- Internal exposure leads to the development of leukemia and other cancers.
Depending on the dosage of irradiation, the deterioration of health status can be observed a few hours later after a stay in the infected area, or can appear after some time.
The reason of negative effects of radiation
Detrimental impact of radiation on all living organisms is explained quite simply. Because of the huge impact of ionizing radiation in all living cells are formed by highly active molecules called free radicals. It is through these particles, the radiation becomes dangerous to all living things. As affected by such free radicals on a living organism?
- First, they have a devastating effect on the well-dividing cells of the digestive tract, haematopoietic system and sex cells. When infected with radiation in patients with increased body temperature, nausea, stable vomiting and diarrhea, also reduces the volume of blood cells.
- Other organs and systems, in which cells divide less rapidly, get qualitative changes in the structure.
- For the delicate membrane of the eye exposure to radiation is harmful because of the occurrence of radiation cataracts.
- Severe consequence of radiation contamination is considered a strong decrease of immunity, sclerotic changes in the vessels and the number of genetic changes.
If the irradiation had a woman in early pregnancy, maybe the birth of a child with congenital diseases genetic plan. If the pregnancy is large, it is born weak child and often he lives only a few hours.
To be irradiated can be in contact with someone who received very high dosesradiation. That is why all people caring for the patient with radiation sickness should use protective equipment.
The effect of radiation on genetics
Genetic structure is the receptive mechanism. Errors or failures are provoked by different causes, one of which is radiation exposure.
Changes in the germ cells due to irradiation lead to the defect cells in the formation of a new living organism. This harmful effect can extend for several generations. The children and grandchildren contaminated person may be deviation of physical or mental nature. But such defects take place only if a defective gene is connected with the same genome. The narrower the range of people who have been exposed to harmful radiation, the less chance of a birth of sick children.
What determines the consequences
The result of any radiation exposure depends on certain factors:
- the type of radiation;
- from the genetic characteristics.
The body of any healthy person can regenerate damaged cells, while their volume will not be critical. If this level is significantly exceeded, it can run dangerous processes in the body that often lead to death.
It happens that the effects of irradiation are manifested only years later. Intense, but short-time exposure is much more dangerous than getting multiple, but small doses.
To assess the radiation condition of use some settings. The radiation dose describes the ability of microparticles deleterious for the cells of the body. This parameter was taken as a basis for determining the degree of infestation. Measured radiation levels in Sieverts (SV).
In the environment there is always a natural background. At rates that do not exceed 0,2 MKZ/h, it is considered normal. But there is another point of view according to which harmless levels of radiation just yet.
The upper limit of radiation to 0.5 MKZ/h is safe for humans. If the dose of radiation comes in the working area to 10 MKZ/h, but the person works a short time, then there is no danger to health not.
The x-ray fluorography preventive and other medical examinations no danger to the person are not, if observed technology implementation.
At the sight of the sign that warns of the dangers of radiation contamination, it is better not to tempt fate and not to enter the affected area. Only instinct can save human life and health in this case. It is important to remember that the radioactivity can accumulate in the body, and radiation dose are summarized.