How to protect yourself from radiation in the home
Anyway, each person on the planet responds to radiation. This can be the adventure of examinations in medical institutions, residence in areas with high background radiation or even stay in the mountains during the holidays. Although safe dose of radiation does not exist in principle. But still the most powerful dose of radiation a person at risk in a nuclear explosion. Therefore, it is important to know how to protect themselves from radiation in the home in case of a real threat.
The stages of a nuclear explosion
Before talking about methods of protection against radiation, it is necessary to understand the essence of a nuclear explosion that threatens man at this point:
- The light and heat. The first thing that a person can threaten at the moment of explosion is a blinding flash of light and a powerful release of thermal energy. The man who at this moment is in the midst of, at risk to burn in just a few seconds. If you look at what is happening from afar, it can damage the retina.
- Shock wave. The laws of physics behind the light is a sound wave. The power of the explosion is such, that swept everything in its path for a few tens of kilometers. The average speed of the shock wave is about 18-20 km in 35 seconds.
- The primary radiation. At the moment of the explosion created a nuclear radiation consisting of gamma rays and neutron particles. This is the most dangerous rays for the human body. Distance of lesion to the range of the shock wave.
- Secondary radiation. Being far away from the epicenter, one can avoid all the previous dangers. But the next problem is the secondary radiation when radioactive particles are carried long distances by the wind, together with precipitation.
The threat of secondary radiation is determined by the direction of the wind after the explosion. However, to predict the time is practically impossible, since at different altitudes, the direction may change.
How to behave when the threat of explosion
For residents of large cities the probability of escape from the radiation, being outside his apartment, quite small. Especially if at the time of the explosion you are in the subway or in a large shopping center. It is these objects selected as targets by terrorists. But suppose that during the explosion, you happen to be at home. Consider what you need to do to survive in a time of disaster and after:
- Sit in a room without Windows. If your apartment gets hit by the blast, the glass will not survive, and through it will penetrate the primary radiation. In extreme cases, cover the Windows with Scotch tape and band-aid, maybe it will help to hold glass in the frame. Additionally, you need to seal all the cracks and close the vent to avoid ingress of contaminated particles along with the air and dust.
- In the room where you will be, place the Essentials (clothes, shoes, water and food). This should all be in sealed containers. Please note that drinking water and food should last for a long time, perhaps 2-3 weeks.
- Note the clothing – skin should be as closed. Tightly fasten all buttons, cuffs. The edges of the shirt and pants wrap tape. At home on hands and feet it is advisable to wear plastic bags and also firmly secured and not to leave the slightest gap.
- On the face wear a mask, respirator. Ideally in this situation to use the gas masks, but it is unlikely the average family keeps on hand is clothing. Therefore, we will use the means at hand, even if it is just a piece of cotton fabric.
If the time of the explosion you survived, then you have to deal with its consequences, protecting yourself and your family from secondary radiation.
Protection from secondary radiation
The best method of defense is to get away from the epicenter. But if you don't have time to do this before the disaster, not worth trying immediately after. Your task – to protect themselves from radiation to dust present on the street:
- The first few days do not go outside. But take care of proper ventilation of the room in which you are. For this you can open the entrance to the ventilation shaft, preliminary having fixed on it a piece of cotton fabric. Before that, it is advisable to moisten it with water, since the protective properties of wet material is much higher.
- Do not use the Central water supply system. At your disposal is only the water that you personally had to collect and securely close.
- All products store in tightly closed containers. Protects from radiation, even a thin plastic bag, so you can use it as a protective screen for food.
- When the time comes to go out for fresh air, take care of the protection. Mucous membranes and skin must be protected from radioactive particles that are present in air in high concentrations.
- Returning home, outerwear place in front of the entrance to your "sanctuary". It may be harmful particles that are in contact with the body will continue to irradiate him from the inside.
The radioactive background of the earth is ten times higher than at the height of 1 m from its surface. Considerthis information during the movement. In children, due to small stature received by the organs radiation dose can be higher than in adults. So if you have to travel with a small child, it is recommended to take it in hands or put on shoulders.
Nutrition and dietary supplements
Some foods and food additives are able to reduce the negative impact of radionuclides on the body. Of course, none of the pharmaceuticals is not a hundred percent protection from harmful radiation, but somewhat weaker, their harmful effects some tools quite a force.
These tools include:
- The potassium iodide. The drug is administered to adults one tablet a day. Children's dosage ½ tablet over the age of 2 years old, ¼ tablets for kids under two years of age. It is always better to consult a doctor, as the drug has side effects, and contraindications.
- Alternatively, potassium iodide can be used a solution of iodine in a proportion of 3-5 drops per 200 ml of water for adults and 1-2 drops of the same volume of water for children. But then again, it is recommended to consult a specialist before taking.
- The ginseng root. Tincture of ginseng root is used before meals twice a day. Single dose is 35-50 drops. The use of this means to children is contraindicated.
- Extract of Eleutherococcus. He has to take it twice a day, adding in tea. Single dose of 0, 5 tsp. The tool is also contraindicated in children up to 16 years.
The most effective protection from radiation and neutralize their negative impact phenolic compounds, flavonoids and vitamins. Therefore, foods with radioprotective properties, can be referred:
- berries (blueberries, cranberries, lingonberries, cherries, grapes);
- onions and garlic;
- egg shells;
Of course, you don't need to go out to gather berries and vegetables after the explosion. Even more so, given the high background radiation of the earth in the place of the accident, the treatment of food should begin after moving to the area not affected by radiation.
In addition to the special diet will need a vitamin complexes especially b vitamins, C and R. And if vitamin C has no direct exposure to radionuclides, it certainly enhances the action of other specified substances.
In conclusion, we draw attention to another important point – hygiene. In addition to the usual procedures, it is necessary twice a day to wash out the mucous membranes. For nose and throat will approach a normal saline solution at low concentrations. For eyes you should use special drops with moisturizing effect. To carry out the procedure regardless of the duration of stay on the street with elevated background radiation.
As soon as the situation is normalized a little bit, you need to urgently leave the contaminated area. Because the consequences of this disaster will reverberate for decades to come.