Valid and a lethal dose of radiation for humans
Modern man is constantly exposed to radiation. Publish household appliances, trendy gadgets, power lines and other objects. Radiation can be divided into two groups: non-ionizing and ionizing. The first group is considered to be safe for humans. It includes radio waves, heat, ultraviolet. The danger is the second group, to which belongs radiation. What is so dangerous is radiation and what is a lethal dose of radiation for humans.
Where you may encounter radiation
Radiation pursues you everywhere. The earth itself has a natural radiation background. It can vary depending on the region. The biggest radiation level in our country is observed in Altai Krai. But even he is so small that it is completely safe. Much more dangerous than artificial sources of ionizing radiation we encounter quite often:
- X-ray equipment in hospitals. Every year we pass fluorography and exposed to radiation. Radiation dose in x-rays is small and in a single passage, the injury is not applied.
- Scanning devices in airports. They are similar to medical x-rays. The rays pass through the human body, so the radiation dose is extremely small.
- The screens of old TVs CRT.
- The reactors of nuclear power plants. This is the most powerful source. While he is in integrity, not a particular risk. But any damage threatens a global catastrophe.
- Radioactive waste. When disposed of improperly, contamination of the environment, posing a potential danger.
The normal dose of radiation carries a great danger to the life or health of a person. With its slight bias developing radiation sickness. If the same person acts high dose of radiation, comes the instant death.
The unit of measurement of radiation
Since 1979, introduced a new unit of measuring the level of radiation – sievert. It may be referred to the SV or Sv. One sievert is equivalent to the amount of energy that absorbs one kilogram of biological tissue. Previously the unit of measurement of radiation was considered REM. 1 sievert equals 100 REM.
Small doses of irradiation is generally measured in millisieverts. One sievert is a thousand millisieverts.
How to measure radiation
The radioactivity of the surrounding space directly affects the condition. Even being at home, a person can suffer negative effects. Especially dangerous are the apartments, which are equipped with kitchenware, a crane made of glass, finishing materials, with the addition of granite or old radiation paint. In such circumstances, it is important to periodically measure the background radiation.
To identify dangerous background will help special devices – radiometers or dosimeters. For use in the living room using a dosimeter. With the help of the radiometer can be used to determine the background of food.
Today there are special organizations that provide services for the definition of radiation contamination. Experts will help you to identify and utilize sources of background.
You can purchase a home dosimeter. But to be 100% confident in the testimony of such a device is impossible. When it is used it is necessary to strictly follow the instructions and prevent the device in contact with the studied objects. If the levels of radiation in the premises would be invalid should seek help from professionals as soon as possible.
Impact of radiation on human beings
To understand the issue, what is the dose of radiation is dangerous to humans, will help table.
|Radiation dose, SV||Effects on humans|
|To 0.05||Permissible doses of radiation. If impaired, the negative consequences for human health is not observed.|
|From 0.05 to 0.2||The symptoms of radiation sickness do not occur. In the future, increasing the likelihood of developing cancer and genetic mutations in offspring.|
|From 0.2 to 0.5||Negative symptoms are not observed. In the blood decreases the concentration of leukocytes.|
|From 0.5 to 1||Early signs of radiation sickness. Men have enormously increased probability of infertility.|
|From 1 to 2||A severe form of radiation sickness. Based on statistics, 10% of people who received a dose, do not live more than a month. In the first 10 days the condition of the victim stable, then there is a sharp deterioration of health.|
|From 2 to 3||The probability of death during the first month increased to 35%. The concentration of leukocytes in the blood drops to critical values.|
|From 3 to 6||There remains the possibility of cure. Killed about 60% of the victims. The cause of death is the development of infectious diseases and internal bleeding.|
|From 6 to 10||The probability of death is 100%. To recover in this case is impossible. Modern medicine could delay death up to a year.|
|From 10 to 80||Man falls into a deep coma. Death half an hour later.|
|More than 80||Death fromradiation occurs immediately.|
Safe is the radiation whose power is not more than 0.2 microsieverts per hour. Permissible dose of radiation for a human is not greater than 0.05 SV. Exposure above that value leads to serious health consequences. Annual x-ray exposure dose of 0.05 SV is characteristic for people working at nuclear power plants in the absence of any emergency situations.
With respect to local medical procedures maximum permissible dose of radiation for humans is 0.3 SV. The rate of irradiation with x-rays in a year does not exceed two treatments.
Role plays not only the radiation power but also the duration of exposure. Low power impact, influencing for a long time, will be more harmful to health than short-term impact. But this is true only if we are not talking about lethal doses of radiation.
The effect of radiation accumulation
Throughout life in the human body can accumulate from 100 to 700 microsieverts of radiation. This figure is considered normal and does not threaten the health or life of a person. In the year in the body can accumulate about 3 to 4 microsieverts.
The amount of the accumulated radiation will largely depend on external circumstances. So, every x-ray in the dentist's office brings 0,2 microsieverts, a passage through the airport scanner – 0.001 mSv, chest x-ray study – 3 mSv.
When developing radiation disease
Effect of acute dose of radiation on human beings is the development of radiation sickness. It affects almost all body systems. Depending on the dose of radiation may be treatment or result in death.
According to recent studies, for the appearance of radiation sickness, a dangerous dose of radiation per year is 1.5 SV. The limit of acceptable dose of a single irradiation – 0,5 SV. After this point begin to show signs of defeat.
There are the following forms of radiation sickness:
- A radiation injury. Appears when the single dose of radiation did not exceed 1 SV.
- Bone marrow form. Threat of standards – from 1 to 6 SV. In half of the cases this form of the disease leads to death.
- The gastrointestinal form occurs when the dosage of radiation of 10 to 20 SV. Accompanied by internal bleeding, fever, development of infectious lesions.
- Vascular form. Develops after exposure in the range from 20 to 80 SV. Occur severe hemodynamic compromise.
- Cerebral form. Observed in the irradiation of more than 80 SV. There is an instant brain swelling and the death of the victim.
In some cases, radiation sickness can develop into chronic form. The period of its formation may take up to three years. This is followed by recovery of the organism, which lasts three years. With proper treatment the result is a cure. But in some cases, save the patient is not possible.
Symptoms of radiation sickness
If the normal dose of radiation has been exceeded is not critical, then there are symptoms of radiation injury. They include:
- Bouts of nausea and vomiting.
- Dryness of the mucous surfaces of the nasopharynx.
- In the mouth there is the taste of bitterness.
- Appear severe headaches.
- The victim gets tired quickly, leaving his vitality.
- Decreases blood pressure.
In case of exceeding the radiation dose in 10 Minute you experience the following symptoms:
- Redness of certain areas of the skin. Over time, they acquire a blue tint.
- Changes the frequency of contraction of the cardiac muscle.
- Reduced muscle tone.
- Appears the tremor in his fingers.
- The tendon reflex disappears.
Four days later the symptoms disappear. The disease goes into a latent form. Its duration will depend on the degree of destruction of the body. While greatly reduced all reflexes of the body, symptoms of a neuralgic character.
If the dose was more than 3 STAR, then two weeks later, the intensive hair loss. At a dose above 10 SV disease immediately proceeds to the third phase. There are serious changes in the blood, develop infectious diseases. Promptly comes the swelling of the brain, completely lost muscle tone. In the vast majority of cases people are killed.
At the first suspicious symptoms should seek help from a doctor. Only when timely treatment is the chance of the successful treatment of radiation sickness.
The appearance of radiation sickness is detected on the basis of primary symptoms. Careful attention is paid to patients who have been in a situation when you have exceeded a safe radiation dose.
The severity of the lesion determined in the course of the study blood samples of the victim. It turns out the presence of anemia, reticulocytopenia, leukopenia, ESR. About the availability of say radiation sickness signs of bleeding in the myelogram.
In addition to the study of blood carry out the following diagnostic measures:
- Sampling of skin scrapings of the ulcers and conducting microscopy.
- An abdominal ultrasound.
- Ultrasound of the thyroid gland.
- Ultrasoundthe pelvic organs.
Simultaneously, consultations with specialists: hematologist, endocrinologist, neurologist and gastroenterologist. They scrutinize the clinical picture of disease and results of all surveys.
Therapy of radiation sickness
The disease can be successfully treated if the dose threshold of contamination is exceeded only slightly. Among the main therapeutic modalities include:
- Timely first aid. This is especially important for people who have visited the place a strong radioactive contamination. With the victim take off all his clothes, because it accumulates radiation. Thoroughly washed the body and stomach.
- Drug therapy. It includes the use of sedatives, antihistamines, antibiotics, means for the recovery of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, treatment aimed at restoration of the immune system. In the third stage of the disease prescribe, among other things, Antihemorrhagics drugs.
- A blood transfusion.
- Physiotherapy. Most often used breathing with an oxygen mask.
- In some cases, the experts are a bone marrow transplant.
- Proper nutrition. Primarily organized an optimum drinking regime. On the day the victim should drink at least two liters of water. In his diet also should include juices and teas. While at the same time to drink with a meal is impossible. To a minimum reduced consumption of fatty, fried and overly salty foods. A day should be at least five meals. Is strictly prohibited the use of alcoholic beverages.
Only full compliance with all recommendations of the experts gives the victim a chance to recover. Critical is the period of 12 weeks. If the victim has managed to overcome it, then most likely, there will be recovery.
In order to avoid becoming a victim of radiation cure, must adhere to the following guidelines:
- To avoid potentially dangerous areas. At the slightest suspicion that the on-site maximum dose of radiation, you should immediately leave this place and to refer to specialists.
- People engaged in hazardous occupations, it is recommended to use vitamin-mineral complexes, and other drugs, supporting the immune system. The choice of specific medication should be held in conjunction with the attending physician.
- When contact with radioactive items has to use special protection equipment: suits, respirators and so on.
- Drink as much water as possible. The fluid helps flush the body of radioactive substances.
A lethal dose of radiation in sieverts is only 6 units. So at the first suspicion of an increased background necessary to conduct research by means of a dosimeter.