The radiation exposure of man: the types, effects on the body
The radiation exposure of man is the ionizing waves that negatively affect health. In this process, the person may experience radiation sickness. Its manifestations depend on the dose of radiation and location.
The following types of exposure of the body, depending on the pathways:
- External exposure. These include the impact of cosmic rays, solar radiation, radioactive energy, which secrete rocks, etc Getting large doses of radiation possible with the weapons testing nuclear type accidents and other emergency situations occurring in nuclear power plants. In this case, the radiation enters the body with the inhaled air and through the skin.
- Internal exposure. In this case the person receives a dose of radiation from radioactive substances that enter the body through the gastrointestinal tract, blood or skin lesions.
External irradiation from radioactive substances entering the body through the skin straight into the bloodstream. Thereafter, while circulating with the blood through the body, they accumulate in target organs. In them the concentration of radiation will be the biggest. If radioactive particles enter the body with air, which is inhaled, a part of them is removed with the air that is exhaled.
Internal and external radiation are dangerous to humans. This is because the radioactive rays are no barriers in the body and, accordingly, they pass through all the cells. As a result, there are different pathological processes. Namely, the cells of the body become irritated and go into a state of excitement. Such processes lead to the disturbance of their functioning and even death.
Exposure to radiation can trigger biochemical shifts in nature, degeneration of cells and genetic disorders. This is because ionizing radiation affects protein and fat structures in the cells. They are necessary for normal functioning of tissues. Quite often these injuries are microscopic and the manifestation of the effects of radiation begin to be noticeable after some time. Often such damage is manifested in the form of cancers and genetic mutations in the offspring.
If the radiation exposure was minimal, the consequences to the human body will be visible for decades.
What type of radiation is more dangerous: internal or external? Internal radiation is most dangerous to humans, as subsequently manifested severe conditions and diseases. In this type of radiation radioactive atom directly affects the fabric. Thus only limited time of stay of the atom in the body. But despite this, the local action of ionizing radiation is enhanced in some organs.
A negative factor for foreign investment is that no methods of decontamination are not effective.
External radiation is dangerous to humans until such time as he is in the zone of radioactive status. It is especially dangerous if the rays are neurons. They can easily penetrate into the nuclei of atoms and cause changes in them, as it does not conduct electrical impulses. This creates new atoms. This process is called secondary. In this external exposure develop serious pathology.
The impact of external radiation on the organism provokes burns of the skin and mucous membranes. The severity of these wounds depends on the dosage of radiation. Internal irradiation provokes the manifestation of malignant tumors and various leukemias.
For genetic injuries from radiation are manifestations of the descendants of down syndrome, epilepsy, and other developmental defects a physical or mental nature.
Effects of radiation
The degree of irradiation of the internal and external types depends on several factors. Namely:
- varieties of radioactive substances;
- the intensity of their impact;
- individual susceptibility to substances.
The human body is able to regenerate cells that are damaged by radiation, but only if they are not the critical number. If a lot of them, then the pathological process is irreversible.
There is a short-term high dose is much more dangerous than a systemic effect on the organism of small doses.
Is the concept of natural background radiation, it is present in nature. An indication of this external radiation must not exceed 0.2 MKZ/hour is the norm for humans. The permissible level of radiation is considered to 0.5 MKZ/hour. In microrentgen is 50 units per hour.
If the person is in a dangerous radioactive zone, the normal rate of radiation is considered to be 10 MKZ/hour. In this particular harm will not be. This dosage is equivalent to obtained by the procedure of fluoroscopy or other x-ray studies. When x-rays of the tooth, the person receives 0,2 MKZ/hour. It is important that no medical examination of tool-type will not provoke radiation sickness.
The threshold radiation 100-700 MKZ should not be exceeded, so as to be dangerous consequences.Death will be caused by the dose received in the onetime Star size 6-7. Note that radioactive substances can accumulate in the body and add up.