Poisoning acids and their pairs
Acids are chemical aggressive substances. They are widely used in industry, in different industries. Some of them we used to use in the home. The acid poisoning is a serious condition that can lead to serious disturbances in the body and to death. This article describes the causes, symptoms and first aid for acid poisoning.
What are the main causes of acid poisoning
The acid poisoning most often occurs as a result of negligence or carelessness of people. In most cases it can be avoided. The following are the main reasons why it could happen:
- Accidental use in children solutions of acids. The child can take acid for a tasty beverage and try it. At home and the acid is acetic. It can be found in any kitchen.
- A special intentional adoption of the acid with suicidal intent.
- Poisoning by nitric acid can occur during the repair. She is a member of many solvents. The poisoning of the acid occurs when it is used in enclosed and unventilated areas.
- Poisoning by oxalic acid is also possible in the domestic environment. This substance is widely used for removal of stains from ink and paint.
- Hit acids on the skin's surface causes severe burns.
Clinical manifestations of acid poisoning
Symptoms of acid poisoning develop immediately after contact with her. Their severity depends on the concentration and quantity of consumed chemicals. So, for example, poisoning concentrated acid may lead to the development of internal bleeding and taking a weak acid solution will lead to easy burn the lining of the esophagus and stomach.
Listed below are the symptoms of acid poisoning.
- Pain when swallowing, a sensation of cramps in the stomach. These symptoms are caused by strong burns of the mucous membrane of the mouth, esophagus and stomach. Can develop a painful shock.
- Nausea black vomiting – symptoms outbreak of gastrointestinal bleeding. Acid, entering the cavity of the stomach, corrodes the walls, affect the integrity of vascular walls.
- Tachycardia – rapid heartbeat that can occur due to blood loss, intoxication and pain syndrome.
- Melena is black diarrhea also is a symptom of internal bleeding. The black color provides the blood that after contact with the acid coagulating.
- Hypotension – drop in blood pressure.
- Severe headache, dizziness, expressed General weakness.
- Pallor of the skin and mucous membranes. With abundant internal bleeding possible blueing of the lips, mucosa, hands.
- The decrease in amount of urine develops due to reduction of circulating blood volume and renal toxins.
- Respiratory failure manifested by rapid and shallow breathing, severe shortness of breath. The patient experiences shortness of breath.
- Loss of consciousness. When severe intoxication and blood loss, perhaps a confluence of the patient in a deep coma.
How to give first aid to the victim
The first thing to do when acid poisoning is to call the ambulance. Phone details explain to the dispatcher the situation, name the exact address.
Remember that the earlier will be given first aid at a poisoning with acids, the better the patient's chances of not remain disabled and survive. To self-medicate with acid poisoning is strictly prohibited!
When acid poisoning, there is little to help the man before the arrival of ambulance crews. The main thing in this situation – not to harm the patient.
First aid consists of:
- provide rest to the patient. Put it on a flat surface, lift your head. Open the window in my room and unbutton his shirt;
- put on the stomach ice. The cold will lead to spasm of blood vessels and slightly reduce the bleeding.
Remember that gastric lavage or induce vomiting at home in cases of poisoning by acids not. These actions only increase the volume of blood loss and the degree of damage of the stomach and esophagus. It is also forbidden to give the victim any drugs or drink.
Details tell the ambulance crew, which arrived on a call about the incident, call the approximate time the admission sick acid. Doctors will conduct a quick inspection of the patient, check blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate and saturation, and will proceed to first aid, which consists of:
- gastric lavage through the probe. This is the only way to safely cleanse of the digestive cavity from the acid. Lavage is performed with saline;
- the installation of an intravenous catheter through which the drugs are injected to reduce bleeding, pain and connects an IV with fluids for rehydration. When internal bleeding dropped saline solution, disol, glucose, reosorbilakt;
- the treatment of shock. Can be put on medication to control blood pressure, corticosteroids.
During transport of the patient inthe hospital he wears a mask through which flows humidified oxygen. Also along the way he intravenous dripping solutions. Hospitalization is carried out in the intensive care unit or in surgery.
Treatment in a hospital
In the hospital the patient is gastroscopy, through which a doctor examines the degree of damage of the mucous membrane of the stomach and esophagus, and stops the bleeding.
The duration of treatment in the hospital depends on the patient's condition and severity of internal organ involvement. Therapy consists of antibiotics, analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs. When severe intoxication is hemodialysis, by which blood is purified of toxins.
When a large blood loss to the patient shimmers with compatible blood or erythrocyte mass.
If the cause of poisoning was suicidal patient, he conducts a work psychologist. If necessary the person appointed by antidepressants and sedatives.
In parallel with the treatment examination of the patient. It is necessary to identify the degree of blood loss, complications in the internal organs and the heart. Diagnostics consists of:
- the General analysis of blood;
- General analysis of urine;
- biochemical analysis of blood;
- ultrasound examination of internal organs;
- blood test for toxins.
The acid poisoning – a severe condition whose treatment can be carried out only in a hospital. With the development of acid poisoning should immediately call the ambulance. Themselves to wash out the stomach or give some medicine or water is prohibited. The prognosis for life depends on the speed of first aid to the victim.