Cadmium poisoning in humans: symptoms, signs, treatment
Cadmium is a heavy metal that is toxic and dangerous substance for human. In the body it can enter through the respiratory or digestive system. Intoxication with this metal occurs in the form of severe poisoning, long-term contact with it develop chronic lesions of the body. In this article we have considered the reasons why a person may develop acute cadmium poisoning, the clinical manifestations and consequences of this state the principles of first aid and components of his treatment.
The causes of poisoning
Cadmium poisoning may develop during careless work with this metal, and failure to comply with safety regulations. Cadmium is widely used in different industries. It is used in the manufacture of:
- gold jewelry;
- solar batteries;
- cadmium electrodes;
- anticorrosive coatings for metal.
Acute cadmium poisoning can develop during the ingestion of water contaminated by this metal. 30 mg of this substance may cause acute poisoning, a large dose can be fatal to humans.
Cadmium leads to the development of acute toxicity when injected into the body through the skin, respiratory tract, digestive system.
The clinical picture
Symptoms of acute poisoning by cadmium is rapidly increasing. The patient's condition deteriorates during the first 10-15 minutes after contact with this toxic substance. Oral poisoning appear the following clinical signs of intoxication:
- profuse nausea and vomiting;
- strong, cutting and sharp pain in the abdomen;
- multiple diarrhea;
- rapid pulse;
- lowering blood pressure;
- may develop severe dehydration, shock.
Inhalation of fumes of cadmium poisoning develops rapidly. Death may occur in the first minutes after inhalation of toxic doses of the substance. The person experiences the following symptoms:
- violation of breathing, appearance of shortness of breath;
- the pallor and blueness of the skin;
- suffocating cough.
On the background of prolonged inhalation of air which contains the fumes of cadmium may develop pulmonary edema, asphyxia and suffocation. Under this condition, the person has cough, he had increasing shortness of breath, blue skin, at a distance hear wheezing in the lungs.
The symptoms of chronic cadmium poisoning
Chronic cadmium poisoning affects people that come into contact with this metal on duty. The symptoms develop gradually. The man is a lesion of the respiratory, digestive and nervous systems, suffer from the kidneys.
Clinical signs of chronic cadmium poisoning:
- increased secretion of saliva (sialorrhea);
- nausea and vomiting;
- frequent abdominal pain, heartburn;
- headache, dizziness;
- General weakness, drowsiness, tendency to depression;
- the appearance of sections on the body with reduced sensitivity, numbness of the limbs;
- loss of memory;
- yellowing of teeth.
- hair loss;
- the decrease in amount of urine, swelling;
- arterial hypertension;
- dry continuous cough.
During examination of patients with chronic cadmium intoxication revealed anemia, injury of immune system, chronic renal failure. Also, people can develop emphysema, respiratory failure. Women have violation of menstrual function, men have problems with potency.
First aid and treatment of acute intoxication
With the development of acute cadmium poisoning should immediately call an ambulance. If the injured person continues to stay in the room with the contaminated cadmium in air, it should immediately withdraw to a safe place.
In the derivation of the poisoned person to fresh air you need to take care of their safety by wearing a gas mask.
Oral poisoning should immediately flush the patient's stomach using the "traditional method". In order to bring the remains of the poison, you must drink in one gulp 3-4 glasses of plain water and trigger a gag attack. After cleansing the digestive cavity give the victim to drink sorbents. It can be APSCO, activated carbon, enterosgel, Polisorb, etc.
The medical team arrived on the call, will have a poisoned person first aid, they'll take it in the near future reanimation or Toxicological Department. A specific antidote of cadmium does not exist. Treatment is directed at stabilizing the patient, removing toxins from the body. In the case of acute kidney failure is hemodialysis.
The consequences of poisoning
Cadmium is trapped in the body accumulates mostly in the kidneys and deposited in their tubules and parenchyma. In chronic or acute intoxication by this heavy metal may develop kidney damage.
Patients with pain appears in the lumbar region, swelling on the body, decreasing the amount of urine. In severe toxic damage of the kidneys developing hypertension. The examination of these patients revealed renalfailure. It can be acute or chronic. Treatment of this condition includes hemodialysis, drug therapy and diet.
Cadmium is a dangerous and toxic to humans. It may lead to acute or chronic poisoning. With the development of the first clinical manifestations of intoxication necessary to call the ambulance. The treatment is performed in hospital at the Department of toxicology or intensive care. There is no specific antidote. Even with timely treatment the patient can later develop severe kidney disease, requiring long-term or permanent cure.