Cauterizing poisons: poisoning and emergency care
In the human environment is a large number of potentially hazardous substances. For example, cauterizing poisons is caustic alkali, acids and oxidizers. Such chemicals can cause chemical burns to the skin and mucous membranes and also have resorptive effect (the effect develops after suction and receipts into the General circulation).
Poisoning of this kind can obtain not just in a laboratory working with chemicals, but the usual home cleaning when using corrosive substances.
The human body may come into contact with acids in different ways and that the degree of damage will be different.
The main symptoms
In contact with strong acids inhalation of the fumes are such symptoms:
- upper respiratory tract get irritation or burns;
- the defeat of the organ of vision;
- you may experience bleeding from the nose;
- pain in the nose and throat;
- any swelling of the respiratory tract.
If the substance with acidic properties gets on the skin, guaranteed burns chemical type. The degree of damage will depend on concentration of acid and size of the affected area.
When acid gets inside, there is such symptoms:
- pain syndrome spreads throughout the digestive tract starting from the oral cavity;
- from his mouth emanates a peculiar smell;
- changes the color of the tongue and oral mucosa depending on the source of acid;
- recurring painful vomiting with blood, and slimy matter;
- possible gastric bleeding;
- profuse salivation;
- urine becomes pink, brown or dark brown;
- blood pressure drops dramatically;
- disturbed heart rate;
- body temperature rises;
- rarely on the background of edema of the larynx, asphyxiation occurs.
The burns and necrosis is a common symptom of effects on the body for all acids. And in most cases observed in a state of shock, common symptoms of intoxication and slowing down the cardiovascular system. The victim definitely needs the NWO (medical emergency) paramedic.
If it is determined that the poisoning happened on the background of inhalation of vapours, proceed as follows:
- The patient is removed from the completed hazardous substance facilities.
- Throat thoroughly rinsed. To do this, use water, soda or furatsilinovoy solution.
- Inside are alkaline drink.
- Throat warm using mustard.
- Eyes washed and buried with a solution of anesthetic.
If the cause of the poisoning was getting acid inside, the first thing to do gastric lavage. But classic tubeless method with artificial vomiting in this case is inappropriate. If, therefore, to re-expose the esophagus to contact with the acid, it may increase the degree of the burn or in the process of developing burns of the respiratory tract.
In this case, it shows how through the probe. Like gastric lavage has some features:
- Use thick probe, lubricated with paraffinic oil.
- The amount of cold water can reach 8-10 liters.
- Before washing the affected subcutaneously administered a solution of promedol, papaverine and atropine. This will reduce pain and relieve spasm.
- The washings may contain blood, but that's no reason to stop the procedure.
- If the larynx and esophagus is severely damaged, then the introduction of the probe using a rigid tube-guide.
After being hospitalized begins a symptomatic treatment. First of all it is directed on elimination of pain and restoration of the mucosa after severe damage.
Cauterizing poisons – alkali
When the body gets this kind of cauterizing poisons, there is a set of manifestations of severe burns, as in the case of strong acids.
Acute poisoning via the respiratory tract has the following symptoms:
- the mucosa of the respiratory system is irritated;
- the bronchi, bronchioles and trachea become inflamed;
- perhaps the development of pneumonia.
In contact with the alkali inside observed these symptoms:
- burns and sharp pain in the digestive tract;
- exhausting copious vomiting of chocolate or brown, but without smell;
- a strong urge to drink;
- rare stool containing blood;
- the inability to complete emptying of the bladder;
- sudden cardiovascular collapse with loss of consciousness;
- perforated peritonitis.
After the first week on the background of the rejection of necrotic tissue may experience re-bleeding from the digestive tract. In contact with the skin, these substances cause a chemical burn, and in case of contact with eyes, if not timely PMP, even, may develop blindness.
Approach in the provision of emergency assistance in contact with alkali generally has the same principles as in the case with strong acids.
If the alkaline substance has got on the skin or mucous membranes, necessarily shown rinsing with plenty of water. Also in this case, it is permissible to use a weak solution of acetic orcitric acid. The findings funds or tubeless lavage is contraindicated. After the cleaning procedure inside the enveloping means.
Abandon gastric lavage should be in the case of suspected occurrence of through defect in the wall of the hollow body. To suspect such a condition can be a sharp pain like the stroke of a dagger, in the stomach and behind the breastbone. Thus there is a copious cold clammy sweat, the skin pale, the heart rate quickens.
In addition, first aid should include these steps:
- If you experience shortness of breath, resorted to the inhalation of a warm solution of novocaine or throat impose warm compress.
- When expressed pain shock can before the ambulance use is available in the injection analgesics. Effective will also be warmer with ice Packed in the abdominal area of the abdomen.
- If the victim is unconscious, avoid the "suction" of vomit into the respiratory tract, it is better to lay on your right side.
Poisoning cauterizing poisons can lead to irreversible consequences, if not in time to react and to provide the necessary assistance. Chemical poisoning is often the result of chance. How severe will be the state depends on the initial saturation of the solution, amount of the dose and the individual characteristics of the organism. So it is better to be vigilant than to deal with the consequences.