Poisoning with rat poison: deadly poison for humans
Rodent control on private land and in private homes will often require the use of chemicals. Come to the aid of a variety of poisons, effectively eliminating large populations of pests.
However, people often forget that they, like rodents, to fear the actions of toxic chemicals. Poisoning with rat poison is a rare phenomenon, but its consequences can be very serious. Such intoxication may not only lead to functional disorders in the body, but also fatal.
Types of rat poison
Means for deratization – rodenticides – belongs to the pesticide category. They are used commercially in agriculture and in the domestic environment to protect from rodents. For sale is a few rodenticides, differing in the degree of exposure in mice and humans:
- Highly toxic poisons – strychnine, thallium sulfate, a mixture of lead and arsenic, yellow or white phosphorus is recently not used because of the high risk of human toxicity, which is in contact with them.
- Zinc phosphide and naphthylthiourea (krysid) are characterized by high toxicity. They are among the poisons that has an immediate effect and contribute 100% of death of rats a few hours after they eat the bait. These drugs produced and used in a very limited way, in cases where other poisons are not effective.
- Preparations on the basis of zoomarine widespread in the market. Their action is based on clotting of blood. By eating rat poison causes internal bleeding, leading to death. There have been two generations of poisons of this type:
- anticoagulant drugs of the first generation. This rat poison is slowly working on the body. He is not able to accumulate and is excreted with the kidneys in 3-5 days after ingestion. The most famous poisons of this kind are "Warfarin", "Ethylbenzene", "Isainde";
- anticoagulant poisons second generation are more toxicity and ability to accumulate in the body of rodents. Among the most popular drugs in this category, there are "Brodifacoum", "Difenacoum" and "Flocoumafen".
Lethal dose of rat poison for a person depends on the variety of active substance. So, for a fatal outcome while taking "Warfarin", you should consume 60 mg of the substance per kilogram of body weight. Death by "Brodifacoum" comes as a result of the ingestion of 300 mg of the drug per 1 kg weight of human body.
As rat poison effect on a person
To understand how dangerous rat poison to humans, you should know the mechanism of its action. The main active ingredient used in poisons for mice and rats, are anticoagulants. They contribute to the violation of metabolism in the blood of menadione (vitamin K), which prevents proper blood clotting.
Anticoagulant drugs promote the transfer of vitamin K in the idle state, causing the coagulation factors inactive. This leads to the fact that the man is a bleeding of minor wounds, vomiting and diarrhea containing blood.
Human poisoning by toxic drugs like "Difenacoum" can lead to serious consequences: bleeding and internal hemorrhage, severe coagulopathy. In the absence of qualified medical help, the patient may die from loss of blood.
Signs of intoxication
Symptoms of poisoning with rat poison is not apparent immediately after exposure, and after 2-3 days. Often intoxication is manifested by a chronic course. Only in acute poisoning resulting from the ingestion of large doses of highly toxic substances the signs of blood clotting found in the first days.
For internal use rat poison to humans characterized by the following symptoms:
- increased weakness;
- reducing the need for food, nausea, vomiting;
- bleeding from the nose.
- severe headache;
- blanching of the skin;
- bleeding gum tissue, bruising on the mucous membranes;
- blood in the urine and feces;
- impaired vision and hearing;
- internal bleeding.
The intensity of symptoms and number of symptoms depends on the degree of intoxication. At the slightest suspicion on a poisoning with rat poison is necessary to take urgent measures.
Be aware that if you swallowed a baby even a few capsules of rat poison should immediately contact the medical facility! Because of the rapid progression of reactions in children, the effects of intoxication can be severe.
First aid for poisoning
When it detects that the person deliberately or accidentally drank rat poison, you should immediately call an ambulance. Prior to her arrival, is to provide pre-hospital care, consisting in the following:
- The victim should drink 2-3 liters of warm purified water, then induce vomiting by pushing fingers on the tongue root.
- After cleansing the stomach, you need to give a poisoned person activated charcoal or other sorbent.
- It is desirable that the victim took a saline laxative to clean the intestines and reduce the absorption of the poison into the blood.
Until the arrival of ambulance crewsassistance to a person with poisoning rat poison, you cannot take any food. You are only allowed to drink water. In addition, we cannot allow the poisoned person was asleep.
Upon contact of product with skin, thoroughly rinse the place with warm water and soap. Mucous membranes of the mouth and eyes should be rinsed with plenty of running water.
Hospitalization and treatment
Poisoning with rat poison person requires immediate delivery of the victim to the hospital. In the hospital doctors will determine the level of destruction of the body, the presence of internal hemorrhages and prescribe the appropriate therapy.
For the treatment of poisoning with rat poison in hospitals using the following methods:
- Lavage of the stomach and intestines, accelerated diuresis.
- The introduction of the victim an antidote – vitamin K, responsible for blood clotting. The duration of this therapy ranges from 15 to 30 days depending on the degree of poisoning.
- Supportive therapy aimed at restoring the proper functioning of the liver.
- In some cases, require a plasma transfusion to restore blood clotting.
During treatment a patient needs as much rest as possible and to minimize physical activity. After 2-3 weeks of treatment the patient is conducting a study on prothrombin index. Thus, the doctor evaluates blood clotting and effectiveness of provided therapy. If the treatment helped, a man discharged from the hospital, assigning him a course of vitamins to maintain the body.
The consequences of poisoning
Pokazannaya at the right time medical assistance in case of intoxication of a person with rat poison can have serious consequences after some time. Deficiency in vitamin K is destroyed by the action of the toxins leads to the following problems:
- bleeding gums;
- copious bleeding even with minor injuries to the skin or mucous membranes;
- internal bleeding.
The lack of the necessary therapeutic measures for the elimination of toxins and restoration of coagulability of blood may lead to serious consequences, including death.
Prevention of poisoning
If necessary, the carrying out of deratization in the home, you need to consult with experts for the destruction of rodents. They can suggest a way of getting rid of rats without using toxic poisons, such as trapping or traps.
If there is a need to use poison, you must use personal protective equipment. Store poisonous products for disinfestation is necessary in the places in which there is no access to children.
The people working at the enterprises which are engaged in manufacture of poisons for rats, it is necessary to observe safety precautions when in contact with toxic substances.