Chlorine poisoning: signs, symptoms and treatment
Chlorine is widely used in households, medicine and various industries. Chlorine poisoning is a dangerous condition that requires correctly provided first aid and qualified treatment. The article considers in detail chlorine poisoning, its symptoms and treatment, possible complications.
The main causes and mechanisms of poisoning
Distinguish between acute and chronic chlorine poisoning. The acute form of intoxication occurs due to simultaneous contact with large amounts of this chemical.
The main causes of development of acute chlorine poisoning are:
- Ingestion of detergents and disinfectants that contain chlorine. People can do it specially, with suicidal intent, or by accident. Young children can take a SIP of the bright bottles of detergent, thinking that it contains something tasty.
- The number of industrial accidents, which result in a large amount of chlorine into the air. A person can inhale and poison them.
- Poisoning in the pool. Bleach used for disinfection of swimming pools should be correctly diluted, cooked, and Vistana. If the exposure time of the solution is disturbed, it becomes dangerous. The water in the pool, with a high concentration of chlorine may cause burns to mucous membranes, eyes and skin. Also, a man while bathing in the pool can swallow the water when diving.
Chronic chlorine poisoning occurs in employees of industries that use this substance. The risk group includes employees of clinics and hospitals, which is constantly disinfecting chlorine solutions.
Features of clinical manifestations
Symptoms of acute and chronic poisoning by chlorine are different from each other. In acute lesions, the symptoms appear within minutes. With chronic intoxication, there is a slow defeat of the respiratory, circulatory, and nervous system.
Symptoms of acute poisoning
There are several degrees of acute intoxication with chlorine. Their main clinical characteristics are presented in the table:
|The name of the degree of poisoning||Symptoms and signs|
|Lightning||Symptoms develop during the first minutes after contact with bleach. Death may occur in 2-3 minutes. Symptoms:
Symptoms of poisoning with chlorine in the chronic intoxication is increasing gradually. Due to the slow effects of toxic chlorine in the body develop persistent impairment and pathology. Primarily affect the respiratory system, people often sick with colds and respiratory diseases. Then change will begin to affect the Central nervous system.
Chronic chlorine poisoning manifested by the following symptoms:
- Chronic dry cough, not associated with inflammatory processes in the respiratory tract.
- Paleness of the skin.
- Lack of energy, decrease in mood. People prone to bad moods, depressive States.
- Convulsions individual muscle groups. Patients complain of waking at night from severe cramps in the calf or thigh muscles.
First aid for chlorine poisoning is carried out by a man who was near the victims. It is the quickness and correctness of his actions depends on the prognosis of the patient.
Remember! In the case of being in the room, in which there was a release of chlorine, it is necessary to remember, than you need to moisten a cotton-gauze bandage, when the threat of poisoning with chlorine. Better suited to a 2% solution of soda. If it isn't, moisten the bandage with plain water, or in extreme cases saliva.
What to do in acute poisoning by chlorine, described in the list:
- Move exposed person from the contaminated chlorine room. You should also take care about their safety.
- Call the ambulance. The Manager quickly and specifically report the incident, describe the symptoms of the victim, call the exact position. You should also tell me approximately the number of poisoned, if more than one.
- The victim unbutton the shirt, remove the tie. If you are in the room open wide open all Windows and curtains. Sickneeds a flow of fresh air.
- If the skin is traces of chlorine, wash them with water at room temperature.
- If poisoned drank the bleach solution, do not try to make him vomit. Give him a drink of plain water. During vomiting bleach can cause severe burns of the mucous of the esophagus.
- Chlorine in contact with the conjunctiva of the eyes, wash them under running water.
- Give poisoned rinse your mouth with soda solution or milk.
Please note that the oral use of the solution with chlorine, it is forbidden to try to neutralize the acid with alkali. The neutralization reaction involves the formation of large quantities of gas, which can cause gastric bleeding.
First aid if poisoning by chlorine is a team of SMP. If necessary, they intubated the patient and put him on the respirator, adjust the flow of humidified oxygen.
The victim then entered the medications that are aimed at stabilizing the state. Can be used corticosteroids, analgesics, fluids for dehydration.
Further treatment is carried out in the intensive care unit, the intensive care unit. Antidote for poisoning by chlorine does not exist, and therapy directed on elimination of symptoms and consequences of the action of chlorine on the body. It consists of the following components:
- prevent the development of pulmonary edema;
- antibacterial therapy;
- replenish water and electrolyte balance;
- treatment of burns of the mucous membranes and skin antiseptics.
Chlorine poisoning – a dangerous condition that can lead to death. People who inhaled a lot of bleach, can die in a few minutes. Before rendering first aid to the victim, the person should make sure that he himself is not in danger. The treatment is conducted in the neurosurgical Department, and may take a long period of time.