General toxic syndrome: symptoms, treatment
General toxic syndrome is an acute pathological condition arising in response to the action of various toxic components that are formed in the body or hit him from the outside. This condition is most common in children of younger age. The latent period can last from one week to several. Often this syndrome is manifested on the background of intestinal infections – salmonellosis, dysentery and diseases caused by staphylococci. Pathology severely disrupts the nervous system and heart. In severe cases of toxic syndrome can quickly lead to death.
The causes of the disease
Toxic syndrome can develop for several different reasons. Factors that contribute to the emergence of such a syndrome:
- Diseases of the digestive tract infectious origin. It can be coelentera, secondary toxicosis, enteritis caused by Staphylococcus.
- Congenital abnormalities associated with disruption of normal metabolism. It can be renal tubular acidosis, congenital lactose saccharides and lactic acidosis. To the toxic syndrome may result in adrenogenital syndrome, occurring with violation of water-salt balance and hypoaldosteronism.
- Other diseases of a General nature that can quickly lead to toxic syndrome. It can of acute respiratory disease, pneumonia, sinusitis and otitis.
The toxic syndrome occurs due to insufficient blood supply, which leads to disruption of all organs and systems in the body. Disturbed also tissue respiration, which leads to the rapid depletion of energy resources. As a result of pathological changes in the body can lead to death.
Toxic syndrome often occurs in children, and the younger the age of the child, the greater the chance of his toxicity.
The clinical picture
Infectious-toxic syndrome is fairly characteristic symptoms. Primarily affects the nervous system, therefore, the patient the disease begins acutely. The periods of strong excitation quickly replaced by depression.
Toxicosis in children and adults manifested such specific symptoms:
- Symptoms of acute intoxication. It may be dyspeptic symptoms, pale skin, muscle weakness, and a fairly high temperature.
- At the beginning of the disease there is a strong agitation, after which there depression of consciousness. With the development of the pathology of consciousness is inhibited completely and the person goes into a coma.
- At the beginning of the toxic syndrome pressure is greatly increased, but with the development of the disease it falls and remains steadfastly low. It may be accompanied by the release of cold sweat, abnormal paleness, and increased heart rate.
- Appear dyspepsia – diarrhoea, vomiting, acute abdominal pain. Such violations will quickly lead to dehydration and disorders that can be linked to this condition.
- If the patient was dehydrated, there is excessive dryness of the skin and mucous membranes, as well as abnormal thirst that cannot be satisfied. If the toxic syndrome observed in infants, then it sinks the large Fontanelle, and are likely to get eyeballs. Patients of all age groups decreases the elasticity of the skin. They become flabby and lose its elasticity.
- When disturbed metabolism in the body there is a strong lethargy, depression, muscle weakness, depression of all reflexes, and persistent respiratory failure.
- The occipital muscles are overly tense, there is a tendency to muscle spasms.
Human with toxic syndrome is easy to recognize visually. He looks very ill, and the skin of his earthy-gray color.
The toxic syndrome breath always superficial and quite common.
The disease is diagnosed according to the results of collection of anamnesis and examination of the patient. Special attention the doctor pays to infectious diseases, which sick or hurts the patient, as well as congenital diseases of metabolism.
Have the patient clarify exactly when the first symptoms of the toxic syndrome. It is very important to know when appear dyspepsia – before a meal or immediately after it.
On examination, the patient doctor palpate the abdominal wall, cheerleaders have an enlarged liver and spleen. Studies on the determination of the reflexes and basic motor tests. The doctor can perform tests to determine the concentration of attention. It is necessary to understand how affected the nervous system.
The patient listen to the lungs and heart, measured pressure. It is possible to conduct other studies to disrupt other organs.
Patient mandatory delivers a detailed analysis of blood and urine. In addition, conduct serological testing of blood samples to identify the causative agent.
In most cases, patients with suspected infectious-toxic syndrome is sent for consultation to the infectious disease.
Treat the toxic syndrome exclusively in the conditions of hospital. Patienthospitalitynet at the first symptoms of illness in the ICU or intensive care, where the treatment is carried out. The patient regularly measure blood pressure and check the heart's activity.
A standard Protocol for treatment of toxic syndrome looks like this:
- To prevent dehydration, the patient every 20 minutes, give a little water. In addition, shown intravenous isotonic solutions.
- An antibiotic is prescribed. If the pathogen is not identified by the laboratory, then prescribe drugs of broad spectrum.
- Symptomatic treatment can be prescribed hormonal remedies, vitamins and heart medications.
- Assign adsorbents, for binding and output of toxins from the digestive tract.
- Introduced diuretics to revitalize the kidneys and the speedy withdrawal of toxins from the body.
By the physician can be assigned to hemodialysis or plazmaferez. These procedures consist in a hardware cleansing blood of toxins.
If the patient is prescribed antibiotics, he should take parallel and probiotics to prevent goiter.
Prevention of toxic syndrome to maintain a healthy lifestyle. You should avoid any contact with infectious patients, and also to give up bad habits. In the offseason, it is useful to take a multivitamin. In the diet of adults and children should be a lot of fresh fruits and vegetables, and convenience foods, fried and fatty foods should be abandoned.
If a patient is late or incomplete, that is, high risk of development of infectious-toxic shock. This condition requires urgent medical intervention, as it quite often ends with the death of the patient. If treatment is started when the first symptoms of toxicity, what to expect recovery is possible in a couple of weeks.