Harmful naphthalene to humans and can they be poisoned
Naphthalene is a chemical substance in the form of crystals, which are derived from coal tar. It is an aromatic hydrocarbon with a characteristic odor. The compound according to its toxicity belongs to the 4th class of hazard (low hazard substances). Naphthalene poisoning is possible in two cases. First - failure to comply with the safety production in the chemical industry. The second - at home, when naphthalene is used as insecticide – means for the destruction of harmful insects.
Ways of penetration of the poison in the body and symptoms of poisoning
Naphthalene to humans is not a serious threat. Acute poisonings are rare. Negative processes occurring in the body during intoxication are reversible.
Naphthalene enters into the system and the environment through the respiratory tract, skin, digestive tract. The poisoning substance is acute and chronic. Each person sensitivity to the naphthalene varies. Therefore, the clinical picture is manifested with different intensity.
Signs of acute intoxication
The inhalation of naphthalene is less dangerous than ingestion. The vapor concentration of a substance in the air does not reach high figures. If absorbed through mucous membranes of the respiratory tract the substance is quickly absorbed in the blood system and has toxic effects on the nervous system.
Symptoms of acute poisoning with the inhalation routes of penetration of the poison in organism:
- headaches in the temples, the parietal region;
- nausea associated with disorders of the brain;
- single or repeated vomiting;
- chills, fever;
- dark urine due to toxic inflammation of the kidneys and disorders of glomerular filtration.
When naphthalene poisoning of the mucous membrane of the eye is not damaged. Signs of intoxication on the part of the skin is not observed.
If the person swallowed a solid substance, then develop symptoms of lesions of the gastrointestinal tract:
- dizziness and nausea associated with the response of the gastric mucosa by the poison;
- cramping, sharp abdominal pain;
- inflammation of the small intestine and, as a consequence, copious diarrhea;
- in severe cases, muscle cramps, loss of consciousness.
At short-term exposure to naphthalene can cause lysis of red blood cells (dissolution). This will start the process of hemolysis – destruction of erythrocytes with release of hemoglobin. The effects of violation of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the blood can be delayed.
Symptoms of chronic poisoning
Chronic toxicity of naphthalene occurs in people whose work is associated with the use of the substance.
Subjective symptoms of poisoning:
- chronic fatigue;
- reduced capacity to work;
- the daytime sleepiness, impaired sleep quality at night.
The harmful systemic effects of naphthalene on the body is to lose blood. A person develops hemolytic anemia – reduction in the life cycle of red blood cells because of their intensive destruction. Symptoms – jaundice, changes in body temperature, enlargement of the liver and spleen.
In chronic poisoning affects the eyes, gradually developing cataract – complete or partial clouding of the lens of the eye, causing visual disturbances.
First aid for poisoning
If a person has inhaled toxic fumes, it must quickly withdraw from the room to fresh air. The victim to ensure peace and to call an ambulance.
If the powder of the naphthalene gets on the skin, the area exposed to the chemical wash for 10-15 minutes under running water.
When hit poison in the eye flush the conjunctiva under running water (shower) before arrival of the ambulance. If a person wears contacts, remove them (if possible).
If the victim has swallowed naphthalene, strictly forbidden to give pills, neutralizing solutions, or other drugs during the first days after poisoning. Pharmacological agents can react chemically with naphthalene and aggravate the situation.
The substance is harmful to the child's body, the clinical picture of poisoning in babies is more difficult, obessively the victim. At home the child may breathe vapors or swallow some pills naphthalene.
Insecticide cannot be stored near food products. After use substances to wash hands thoroughly. If the room has a distinct smell, you should immediately open the widest possible window to ventilate the room.
To naphthalene poisoning did not happen in the workplace, the employee shall use protective goggles and gloves. In industrial buildings should work well ventilation and exhaust. Naphthalene is a combustible explosive connection. Therefore it is strictly forbidden to smoke during working with it. In hot weather, when heated air chemical activity of substances increases, therefore, the risk of poisoning increases.