Lead colic: symptoms and treatment of poisoning
Lead is a toxic metal. Its excess in the environment can cause serious poisoning called saturnism. Industrial enterprises produce emissions of this carcinogen on a large scale, polluting not only the production site, but also the atmosphere, soil, water. Lead dust and fumes getting into the human body, cause toxic damage to all organs and systems. On the background of chronic intoxication often occurs in lead colic is one of the most severe forms of lead poisoning.
How to recognize lead colic
The main manifestations of this syndrome are the following:
- sudden, cramping abdominal pain, concentrated in the umbilical area. During an attack of abdominal wall is very anxious, and the abdomen is retracted. The pressure of the hands on the epigastric region is slightly dulls the pain (the hallmark of symptoms of lead colic from other inflammations of the digestive tract);
- persistent constipation. Peristalsis does not respond to laxative activities;
- the increase the upper limit of blood pressure to 200 mm;
- a low heart rate (bradycardia), nodal rhythm. With pressure on eyeballs is a strong deceleration (vagal effect).
This peculiar form of intoxication with lead can also be accompanied by vomiting, fever, decrease of urine in the bladder and its allocation.
The above-described clinical symptoms of lead colic (abdominal cramps, hypertension, lack of chairs) – a mandatory specific symptoms of lead poisoning, but not sufficient. The diagnosis is confirmed by blood tests and urine tests. Characteristic of the disease deviations from the norm are evidence of the ingested poison.
The most revealing changes occur with erythrocytes. The number of young red blood cells dramatically increased (reticulocytosis is observed), they are characterized by grain size (basophilic punctate). Often develop anemia when the hemoglobin drops to 60 g/L. poisoning indicate increased hematoporphyrin (dark red covertly pigment) in the urine. Its presence in urine of lead removes all doubt in the diagnosis.
In addition to hematological and urological changes, it is the attack of lead colic may indicate the x-ray photography. For intestinal and stomach in this period is characterized by spastic-atonic state, when some areas are experiencing spasm, and others, on the contrary, lose their tone (expand, swell). That is the reason for sharp pain.
Only the total symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract, heart, liver, Central nervous system, metabolic processes allows us to differentiate "carrier" or lead poisoning.
Why there is lead colic
This phenomenon is better viewed as episodic flash on the background toxicity (including chronic) toxic substance. Associate it with excessive presence of an element in the body. Lead invasion, the result of which can be intestinal colic, possible in two ways:
- exogenous (external). The stream of lead related to the accident at the enterprise;
- endogenous (internal). The accumulation of chemicals in terms of production leads to its deposition in the depot. These depots in tissues and organs rather strong. Lead is determined in the urine even those workers who have not contact. It's not klassificeret it as a permanent source of poison, since it contains the element in an inactive form. But under unfavorable factors (acute infection, food poisoning, alcoholism, mental disorder) lead can be mobilized from the depot, enter the blood and exacerbate long-dormant intoxication – to cause colic.
Lead on the gastrointestinal tract affects, causing spastic pain in one of two ways:
- direct penetration into the smooth muscle of the intestine. In the result, the excited sympathetic nerve, lost tone of the intestines;
- through the Central nervous system. The harmful influence of lead on the vagus nerve center, associated with the bowels, leads to a reduction in its walls.
Treatment of lead colic
According to the classification of Ministry of health, lead colic refers to the fourth, the most severe form of lead poisoning. Fortunately, it is often short-lived. The duration of mild seizure, similar to vegetative crisis, 1-2 days. Usually symptoms disappear without medical intervention, it is sufficient to remove the source of poisoning. Suddenly, the pain subsides, there is profuse stool, reduced blood pressure and restored a pulse. But suffering can last a week or more. The treatment is then necessary. Taking laxatives can not. To ease the warm bath helps, heating pads. The practice of removing lead colic therapy includes calcium chloride, potassium bromide, atropine (intravenously), magnesium sulfate (intramuscularly). For the relief of acute attack use complexing agents (e.g., low-toxic chelating agent Tatarin-calcium). The mechanism of their rapid action involves the formation of lead complex that is subsequently excreted by the kidneys.
In diseases of the kidney, liver, hypertension, the use of complexing agents is prohibited.
The introduction of glucose with askorbinki will have a good tonic effect, as children and adults.
In many companies the contact with lead can not be avoided. Thisindustrial poison with a long history, is well known and its consequences. But because of special chemical properties that determine the demand for lead in many industries, it has no replacement. Therefore, the main prevention of poisoning of people at risk is through regular physical examinations, tests, measures, TB, personal hygiene and food hygiene.