Poisoning zinc and its vapors, the excess of zinc in the body
Poisoning zinc mainly occurs in a production environment. This microelement in large quantities used in industry in the manufacture of matches, paint products, glass products and ceramics. Zinc enters the human body in three main forms:
- solid consistency;
- dusty condition;
- gaseous form pairs, which are formed during welding.
Solid zinc is considered the safest metal. It can have a gray or bluish tint. The greatest danger to man is steam that is causing the "zinc or metal fever".
The role of zinc for the body
In normal human tissues contain about 2 g of zinc. He concentrates in the muscles, liver, skin and prostate gland. The daily need for this trace element is Zinc 8-15 mg. of physiologically affects the human body as follows:
- regulates the functioning of the nervous system;
- participates actively in metabolism by becoming a part of the 200 enzymes;
- improves the immune system;
- controls the hormonal balance that reduces the risk of premature pregnancy termination.
- participates in the development of sexual hormones;
- is part of hormones of the pancreas;
- involved in the development and growth of the body;
- forms the skeleton, nails and hair;
- removes toxic substances;
- involved in hematopoiesis and the regeneration of the skin;
- improves sense of smell, visual acuity and taste sensations.
The causes of intoxication are inhalation of fumes of zinc. In most cases, toxic substances penetrate the mucous membrane of the respiratory system. Welding machine can also serve as a source of poisoning.
The excess of zinc in the body is observed at the concentration up to 200 mg a day.
Symptoms of poisoning
This condition is manifested so clinical picture:
- the appearance of sweet taste in the mouth, which gradually becomes constant thirst;
- the feeling of tightness and compression in the chest area;
- acute attacks of dry cough;
- drowsiness and the feeling of chills;
- high body temperature, which over time drastically reduced, the patient began to sweat.
An overabundance of zinc in the body as a result of falling into the oral cavity has the following symptoms:
- damage and burn of the oral mucosa and the gastrointestinal tract;
- a metallic taste;
- vomiting with blood;
- diarrhea and chronic diarrhea;
- pain in the abdomen and lower extremities;
- collapse and convulsions.
Zinc poisoning, symptoms of which indicate chronic intoxication, carries a risk of malignant transformation of the tissues of internal organs.
Signs of chronic intoxication
The worsening of the clinical picture of chronic lesions of the internal organs is observed in cases of poisoning by such metals as zinc, selenium, arsenic and lead. In such cases, the patient suffers from a disorder of the digestive system and respiratory system. The clinical picture of the disease manifests the following characteristics:
- fatigue and a feeling of chronic fatigue;
- the decrease in visual acuity and tinnitus;
- the defeat of the respiratory system and can end tuberculosis and pneumosclerosis.
Examination of the patient with intoxication is carried out in a health facility and passes this plan:
- Collection of anamnesis of life and disease. Specialist finds out where, under what circumstances he took an overdose of zinc, symptoms and complaints of the patient.
- Visual inspection of the patient which includes examination of the condition of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity.
- General full blood count. This analysis shows the level of toxic substances in the body.
- The analysis of urine.
The poisoning of the zinc requires immediate assistance. Prehospital the patient is required to undertake the following:
- Emergency gastric lavage. Induce a bout of vomiting, you can use drinking 2-3 liters of water with potassium permanganate.
- The use of adsorbents whose function is to eliminate toxic products from the gastrointestinal tract. As a result, the intoxication is significantly reduced.
- Some experts recommend taking a saline solution or milk.
Specialized medical care
After admission of the person he is specialized medical care. Therapy in the hospital isin:
- gastric lavage through a special probe or with unithiol;
- intravenous glucose and ascorbic acid;
- intramuscular injection of unithiol;
- intense vomiting eliminated using chlorpromazine;
- vitamin therapy;
- feed the patient into the lungs of pure oxygen;
- antidote treatment. If the body has elevated levels of zinc, then the patient is administered the dimercaprol isn disposable. Then this procedure is repeated every three hours.
In addition, doctors recommend that people with poisoning to drink too much fluid is warm and avoid stressful situations.
Patient with food poisoning zinc treatment are carried out according to this algorithm:
- Gastric lavage with bicarbonate of potassium permanganate or salt solution.
- For intensive pains in the abdomen of the patient injections are administered painkillers.
- Introduction of unithiol. This pharmaceutical drug is able to quickly remove toxins from the body.
Basic preventive measures
Metal poisoning is considered severe pathology. Treatment of intoxication in the home is considered to be an invalid procedure, and can lead to death. Doctors at home recommended to provide only emergency medical care.
To prevent poisoning by vapors of the production premises should be regularly ventilated or equipped with exhaust ventilation. Workers at the same time equip with personal protective equipment (masks and respirators).
Despite the fact that the toxic effect of zinc is mainly observed in the workplace, in the home also need to follow some rules:
- not valid long-term storage of food in galvanized containers;
- cooking is carried out in a safe container.
Complications of zinc toxicity
Severe consequences of poisoning may lead to acute pneumonia, which develops into respiratory failure. In some cases, patients may complain of the oppression of the cardiovascular and urinary systems. What to do if the patient is diagnosed with signs of disorders of the kidneys? In emergency situations people connected to the ventilation system, and apparatus of filtering the blood. These activities are carried out in the intensive care unit of the hospital.
The prognosis of the disease
If the patient's blood identified a slight increase in the concentration of toxic substances, the prognosis is considered favorable. After washing the gastrointestinal tract and detoxification infusions, the patient recovers completely. Statement of the person, usually 5-7 days.
The chronic form of poisoning is more difficult is cured. Such patients should be under constant medical supervision for several months. During rehabilitation they performed comprehensive diagnostics, which is aimed at timely detection of complications of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.
Zinc is an essential trace element that provides the function of the nervous, muscular and endocrine systems. For avoidance of overdose should follow the rules of personal safety, exercise caution during the application of galvanized products and do not use questionable supplements.