Dichloroethane poisoning: symptoms, first aid
Dichloroethane (chem. formula СlСН2СН2Сl) refers to organochlorine compounds and is a colourless volatile liquid with a specific sweet aroma, reminiscent of chloroform. Poisoning dichloroethane usually occurs by inhalation of fumes while working with it in an unventilated room. The nature of the impact dichloroethane belongs to the II class of danger.
Substance is a good solvent (does not dissolve in water) and is used primarily in the industrial sector. Is a part of many paints, adhesives, stain removers, polishing preparations and other means. It is made from PVC, which receive a variety of materials (hard plastics, profiles for Windows or doors, linoleum, etc.). The substance is perfectly suitable for bonding a variety of materials. Dichloroethane is sometimes used in agriculture for disinfection of vineyards and other crops.
How is poisoning
In most cases, the substance enters the body in the form of vapours through the respiratory system, for example, during use of household chemicals, which includes EDC. Failure to comply with safety rules may randomly enter the body through the skin or gastrointestinal tract (ingestion).
Toxicity of dichloroethane is extremely high. Only 10-15 ml of substance, once ingested, causes severe poisoning, which may lead to death.
Symptoms of acute poisoning with dichloroethane
The poisoning dichloroethane is initially manifested:
- headache and General weakness;
- dizziness and euphoria;
- a slight irritation of the mucous membranes.
After some time, develop more pronounced symptoms in the form of nausea and vomiting with admixture of bile, pain in the abdomen, coughing. Often there is diarrhea and visual or auditory hallucinations. When providing first aid in three to five days the symptoms begin to subside.
In more severe cases of poisoning the symptoms appear in one to two days joined by other signs. The victim observed an increase in pain and liver, begins a pronounced pattern of toxic hepatitis. When listening to audible lung wet and dry rales.
In severe cases also affects the cardiovascular system, resulting in observed pain in the heart area, very low heart rate, and myocardial dystrophy. Along with cardiac disorders are also at increased blood pressure.
In severe cases the victim, in addition to the physical manifestations, there are also mental disorders. The result of psychomotor agitation, a person begins to behave aggressively and inappropriately. He is disoriented and begins to show a variety of unmotivated actions.
If treatment is not carried out, joined by more severe complications that can lead to disastrous results. So, the blood reveals a leukocytosis, and anemia. Pulmonary edema the probability of death significantly increases.
In case of accidental contact of substances in the digestive system symptoms of poisoning dichloroethane is more pronounced. Literally within 10-15 minutes (sometimes up to three hours) starts sharp symptoms. Along with the above manifestations are also observed:
- sharp pain in region of esophagus and stomach;
- chair along with blood;
- the decrease of daily urine output or anuria.
In the first hour for all characteristics are added azotemia, ataxia, convulsions, disturbance of consciousness, and collapse. As a result, may come a coma.
Death most often occurs with severe intoxication along with ekzoticheskimi shock. Approximately 4% of the patients death occurs as a result of renal and hepatic failure.
Dichloroethane leads to poisoning through the skin. With a slight ingress of toxic substances on the skin is observed burning and redness. After a few hours the symptoms disappear. Prolonged exposure appear on the skin persistent dermatitis and erythema.
Symptoms of chronic poisoning
Possible chronic poisoning in people who regularly work with dichloroethane. In this case, you experience constant headaches, fatigue and asthenia, dizziness, drowsiness in the daytime, insomnia at night, shortness of breath, vegetative dystonia, gastritis, weight loss, disorders of the kidneys and liver.
It is very important to differentiate this poisoning is from acute alcohol intoxication, poisoning by ethylene glycol or pale toadstool.
First aid and treatment
As soon as the victim began to show the first symptoms of poisoning, you should immediately call an ambulance. While waiting for the doctors, the patient should be to provide first aid in case of poisoning with dichloroethane. To do this the room must be ventilated, providing fresh air. Be sure the patient needs to change his clothes or remove his clothes, as a pair of toxic substances are easily absorbed in tissues and can further enhance the character of poisoning.
If the substance is ingested orally, it is necessary to washstomach. You need at least 15 litres of warm water. To induce vomiting, the victim should drink 1 or 2 liters of water, after which finger pressure on the tongue. This procedure need to be repeated several times.
To neutralize toxic substances, it is necessary to take activated charcoal and a laxative drug quick action. Great success for this uses mineral oil (in this case to use 100 or 150 ml). This oil is not absorbed in the intestine and well binds fat-soluble substances of a toxic nature.
In addition, doctors recommend to drink exciting drinks, such as jelly or jelly. Using them can significantly reduce the absorption of dichloroethane in the stomach.
After gastric lavage, is already in a hospital administered laxative salt, and also put a siphon enema. To cleanse the blood from poison is applied hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Often used as the method of hemosorption.
To restore the liver and the entire body assigned vitamin (mainly a, B, C), antioxidants, insulin, glucose and glucocorticoids. According to the testimony can be assigned to a cardiovascular preparations, lipotropics, hormone therapy, and other therapies.
Preventive measure from poisoning
Dichloroethane has a high toxicity, so if it is necessary to follow safety precautions. To do this, in the premises, you must install ventilation. It is necessary to work in special clothes (at high vapour concentration in a gas mask), and then shower and change. Regularly once a year to undergo a medical examination (with the participation of the therapist and neurologist).
In a domestic environment working with products containing dichloromethane must outdoors or in a well-ventilated area away from sources of fire. Glued products must be taken out of the house to dry.