The consequences of alcohol poisoning and intoxication
Poisoning in alcoholic beverages is found not only in the circle of chronic alcoholics. Many cases of intoxication occurs as a result of first use of alcohol, exceeding safe single dose or consumption of a defective product. According to statistics, deaths as a result of intoxication, liquor or their surrogates occurs in 53% of cases. Not less than the common results of poisoning are coma, a disorder of the nervous system and damage internal organs. So before you make a decision about the consumption of beer or vodka, it is necessary to understand what might be the consequences of alcohol poisoning.
Symptoms of alcohol intoxication
Not every case of alcohol intake leads to poisoning, so you should pay attention to the following evidence of the need to provide person first aid
- From the blood appear these symptoms:
- nausea and vomiting;
- pain in the stomach.
- The nervous system is characterized by the following phenomena:
- a state of euphoria and excitation;
- violation of speech and coordination of movements;
- the appearance of hallucinations;
- the decrease in body temperature.
- The cardiovascular system signals the poisoning of these signs:
- heart palpitations;
- low blood pressure;
- the pale skin of body and redness of the face;
- General weakness.
- Signs of alcohol poisoning the respiratory system are reflected in the following:
- loud, rapid breathing;
- acute respiratory distress syndrome.
- Symptoms of intoxication in the kidneys and the liver are displayed in such moments:
- violation of urination: increased urination or, conversely, his absence;
- pain in the right hypochondrium;
- yellowing of the skin.
Intoxicated with alcohol severe the person may experience lack of any response to stimuli from the outside, a complete breakdown of consciousness. In some cases, the victim falls into a coma.
The impact of alcohol on the body
Depending on the amount of alcohol consumed, the severity of lesions of the internal organs and systems may differ, as evidenced by relevant symptoms:
- Intoxication. At this stage, the person observed temporary changes in the nervous system – restlessness, absent-mindedness, inhibition of thought processes, incoherence of speech. In some cases, it may be a special psychotic state of pathological intoxication, which can occur even as a result of receiving a small dose of alcohol. It is characterized by sudden loss of self-control, appearance of hallucinations, uncontrollable fear and aggression. Completion of acute psychosis often becomes a dream, after which the person remembers nothing.
- Poisoning. This stage of alcohol is characterized by a significant accumulation of ethylene in the body and irregularities in the functioning of most organs and systems.
- Intoxication. The influence of products of disintegration of alcohol on human organs leads to pathological changes in their structure and functioning.
The consequences of alcohol poisoning
The influence of products of disintegration of alcohol on the body does not pass unnoticed. The effects of alcohol intoxication can affect the functioning of most organs and internal systems. Special hazard ethylene is for the gastrointestinal tract, liver, brain and nervous system.
The main function of the liver – the exchange of useful substances in the human body, and detoxification of various toxic elementsthat are formed either coming from the external environment. Is this process due to special cells of the organ of hepatocytes, which occur inside the necessary biochemical reactions.
After the intake of alcohol in liver cells is its conversion to acetaldehyde, then to acetate. These toxic elements over time, lead to degeneration of the tissue of the liver for fatty. This happens in the following way: in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes the formation and accumulation of fatty particles, which subsequently displace the nucleus of healthy cells. The gradual replacement of liver cells fibrous connective tissue leads to the failure of the authority to fulfil its function to neutralize toxic substances.
Steatosis resulting from the frequent poisoning of the body with alcohol, combined with a poor diet is found in 95% of people with a pathological addiction to alcohol. Often the disease is asymptomatic, manifesting only at the severe stage, when treatment becomes impossible. However, timely examination and termination alcohol consumption of the liver can be restored.
In the absence of timely treatment and continuation of alcohol intake may develop chronic hepatitis, which eventually transformirovalsya in cirrhosis. Upon the occurrence ofcirrhosis transformation of liver cells and irreversible. Continued drinking in this case can lead to death.
Complications in the functioning of the digestive tract
One of the consequences of toxic poisoning by breakdown products of alcohol is a violation in the work of the gastrointestinal tract. Under the influence of ethylene is necrosis of the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines, preventing proper absorption of vitamins and mineral substances with food. This often leads to deficiencies and impaired metabolism.
Another breach caused by the breakdown products of alcohol – the development of peptic ulcer disease, which causes acute pancreatitis. The presence of this disease is an absolute contraindication to drinking alcohol. Failure to do so can lead to organ failure, development of shock, the formation of numerous pseudocysts and even death.
Alcohol poisoning, chronic character, the incident some time lead to the violation of the structure and functioning of the heart muscle. In the result of fat conversion of the myocardium is reduced contractile function of the heart.
In addition to the effects of alcohol intoxication include disturbances in the functioning of the heart muscle:
- ischemic heart disease a result of the receipt of an insufficient amount of oxygen;
- a heart rhythm disorder;
- cardiosclerosis changes;
- the expansion of the heart cavities.
Prolonged intake of alcohol over time leads to myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death.
The destruction of the cerebral cortex as a result of chronic alcohol poisoning is caused by the influence of two factors:
- neurotoxic effect of breakdown products of alcohol;
- a deficiency of vitamin b1, which is due to the improper functioning of the digestive tract and liver.
Prolonged exposure to these moments leads to alcoholic encephalopathy – the death of brain cells. Often, this disease develops as a result of prolonged abuse of alcohol during the transition to the final stage of alcoholism.
Initial signs of alcoholic encephalopathy is a General exhaustion, poor memory and sleep, lethargy, emotional instability. With continued use of alcohol and the absence of treatment a person develops an acute or chronic form of alcoholic encephalopathy that can occur in the following symptoms:
- violation of muscle tone;
- the absence of verbal contact;
- headaches, muscle and heart pain;
- memory disorder;
- disorientation in space and time;
- the polyneuritis of the extremities.
With timely start of treatment of chronic forms of alcoholic encephalopathy symptoms disappear and person returns to normal. The acute form of the disease often terminates by disability or death of the victim.
No less severe condition that occurs when poisoning by alcohol, alcoholic epilepsy. Epileptic seizures occur during the stay of the person in a drunken state, even when consuming small amounts of alcohol. Over time, these seizures can lead to the development of dementia.
Mental disorders – the most common consequence of alcohol poisoning. At the initial stage of the disease manifest such symptoms as mood instability, irritability, sleep disturbances, fatigue, narrowness of interests, personality change in the alcoholic type.
In more advanced stages the effects of alcohol poisoning can occur in the following forms of mental disorder:
- Alcoholic psychosis or delirium tremens. Observed after a couple of days after the release of the person from hard drinking. The victim observed disorientation in time and space, visual and auditory hallucinations, altered perception of reality. While in this state, a person can harm both themselves and others.
- Acute alcoholic hallucinosis. Being in clear consciousness, the person experiences auditory hallucinations, under the influence of which may perform unpredictable actions. The chronic nature of mental disorders auditory hallucinations can accompany a person for several months.
- Alcoholic delirium of jealousy. On the background of sexual function disorder, the patient developed obsessive thoughts about infidelity second half, which forced him to commit rash acts.
- Alcoholic delusional psychosis is a obsessive-compulsive disorder, accompanied by delusions of persecution. The patient believe that others are against him. In this state, a person may be aggressive and cause harm to others or himself.
One of the serious consequences arising from alcohol intoxication, – the fall of man inwho. Severity there are three stages of this condition:
- Surface coma is characterized by constriction of the pupils and their reaction to light. Intoksicazionny people react to the smell of ammonia movements of hands and facial expressions. To bring the consciousness of the patient is recommended gastric lavage with a special probe. The forecast for recovery is generally positive.
- Coma moderate severity is characterized by a marked relaxation of the muscle tone of a person. The response to ammonia vapour is loosely defined. Gastric lavage does not guarantee the return of consciousness. At this stage, the victim required emergency hospitalization in the Toxicological Department of a medical institution.
- Deep coma is determined by the total lack of reaction to light, motor reflexes and pain. Have the affected person disturbed breathing, and seizures are present. Require immediate hospitalization intoxicating person in medical facility.
In the absence of timely skilled care coma may fail with a fatal outcome as the result of respiratory failure or malfunction of the cardiovascular system.
Prevention of alcohol poisoning
Ideal prevent alcohol poisoning and preventing diseases of the body – a complete rejection of alcoholic beverages. If for any reason to achieve this is impossible, should adhere to the following rules:
- to abandon the use of alcohol on an empty stomach;
- not to mix drinks of different strength;
- do not exceed the individual allowable dose of alcohol.
At occurrence of first signs of alcohol intoxication should apply to the hospital for skilled medical help and not to self-medicate. This can not only prevent the development of many diseases, but also to save lives.