Alcoholic coma: symptoms, effects, first aid
The use of alcoholic beverages has become a tradition for many people. But in some cases their number is so great that there comes a severe poisoning. Alcoholic coma is the last stage of this disease. If time does not take measures to rescue the man, he will die. Therefore, it is important to remember the first signs of problems and rules of first aid.
What is a alcoholic coma
Coma is a condition in which slow down all biological processes. In this way the body tries to protect itself from the toxic effects of alcohol. This greatly decreases the muscle tone, stops the cough and swallowing reflexes. Therefore, if time does not take action, the person may simply choke on their own saliva or vomit.
Alcoholic coma are dangerous and a depressed respiratory system. Interferes with the normal ventilation of the lungs. This in turn provokes oxygen starvation of body tissues and brain.
In that condition often people go with alcohol dependence. But sometimes this can happen with social drinker a person who has exceeded the maximum for myself dosage of alcohol.
It is believed that slipping into a coma enough 450 grams of vodka. Although this dosage is very approximate, as much will depend on the individual characteristics of the organism.
The effect on the body overdose of alcohol
For many people, the use of alcohol-containing liquids is becoming the norm, their body gradually adjusts to this way of life. But often the body protesting against the action of the poison and the person loses consciousness. Sometimes people think their friend just fell asleep, but in fact he fell into a coma.
Alcohol enters the body portions, and therefore the poisoning effect has gradually. Ethyl alcohol is absorbed and spreads into the blood circulatory system throughout the body. The rate of penetration of toxic substances in cells will be determined by the age of the person, features of its immune system, as well as meal together with alcohol.
The toxic effect is on for 12 hours. During this time, the alcohol level can vary or remain at the same value. Then its concentration decreases. The liver is able to process only 10% of alcohol drunk. The decay products appear in a natural way with sweat or urine.
Stage of poisoning and the main causes
Depending on the amount of alcohol consumed alcoholic beverages intoxication can occur in three stages:
- First. She is considered easy. The state of health of the person cannot stabilize fast enough. This stage is characterized by: a change of skin tone, muscle hypotonia, loss of consciousness. On examination, the patient, you notice signs of impaired functioning of the brain. The pupils of the man narrowed, and there is no reaction to any stimuli. In the breathing are clearly audible wheezing, tachycardia develops. Since the bladder is full, perhaps spontaneous urination.
- Second. Is characterized by a loss of consciousness. Allow the victim in a sense becomes very difficult. He does not react to external stimuli. Pupils are severely constricted. Completely absent reflex response from the tendons. Falling blood pressure. Some of the first aid measures will not be enough.
- Third. Man falls into a coma. There are no reflex reaction. Define hypotension and tachycardia. The body temperature is lowered to the level of 35 degrees. Breathing is barely perceptible. May have convulsions. At this stage the alcohol content in the blood can reach to 7.5 ppm. The event, first aid will only help to keep the disease. You must immediately bring the injured to hospital and start treatment.
The outcome of the disease will depend on its stage and health of the victim. The second and third phase of poisoning require hospitalization.
As has become clear, the main reason alcoholic coma becomes excessive use of alcohol-containing liquids. A lethal dose is impossible to determine, as it is for each person to be their own. All depends on the individual characteristics of the organism.
The degree of poisoning effect eating during drinking of the beverage. If you take alcohol on an empty stomach, the effects of intoxication will be heavier and will come faster.
Most often, the coma is observed if for each liter of blood has about 3 grams of pure ethanol. When the value of more than 5 grams of death.
Signs of alcoholic coma, and first aid
Alcoholic coma develops gradually. The confluence of a person in this state is preceded by the following symptoms:
- Strong dizziness.
- Disorientation in space.
- Pale skin.
- A significant narrowing of the pupils.
- Light cramps in the muscles.
If the time to recognize such signs to stop the flow of alcohol into the organism and to clean the stomach, then serious consequences will likely be avoided.
If you are near the victim with a serious alcoholicpoisoning, the first thing you will need to call an ambulance. The experts will be able to adequately assess the severity of intoxication and take appropriate action. But just wait for the arrival of doctors it is impossible. First aid in case of alcoholic coma includes:
- Inspection of the person's mouth. If it has accumulated vomit, remove them from there. The only way you will be able to provide a full breath. Place the victim on his side so that his head was slightly below the level of the body. Clear nasal passages of mucus. You can use the syringe.
- Coma is accompanied by a significant decrease in body temperature. Therefore the victim needs to bring in a well-heated room and cover with a warm blanket.
- Try to bring the nose of the patient a piece of cloth soaked in ammonia. With an average degree of poisoning this will help to bring a person to life.
- If poisoning is severe and stopped breathing have to do cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. To do this, use the technique of mouth to mouth and chest compressions.
- If the disease is accompanied by strong convulsions, during the attack hold the victim's head, so he didn't get injured.
This emergency care will help to avoid asphyxia and cessation of cardiac activity. So neglect it not.
Accurate diagnosis of the disease
For reliable determination of the health status of the victim some of the visual signs is not enough. Apply the following diagnostic measures:
- Laboratory studies of blood and urine. Revealed the level of amylase, glucose and other substances in the tests.
- Ultrasound of internal organs. Specialist is able to assess the degree of damage to the pancreas, liver and kidneys.
- Echoencephaloscopy. Allows to detect brain damage.
- If the doctor has suspected mental disorder, back injury, or vascular abnormalities may be a lumbar puncture.
The use of such simple diagnostic methods helps professionals to develop the right treatment program.
How to treat alcoholic coma
A treatment program can be divided into two parts. You first need to cleanse the body from toxic substances and to eliminate the probability of death. In the second stage proceed to the treatment of the effects.
Treatment includes the following activities:
- Lavage of the stomach. This is done with a special probe that is inserted into the stomach. Thus, it is possible to reduce the concentration of toxic substances in the body of the patient.
- In the vein injected a solution of glucose, insulin, and vitamins of group B.
- To stop intense salivation, an injection of atropine.
- To stimulate the heart muscle helps a shot of caffeine.
- If the patient is unable to breathe independently, it is connected to the ventilator.
- In order to withdraw excess fluid from the body, the victim give diuretics. Catheter is placed to drain urine.
- To restore blood pressure helps the use of hormonal therapy in conjunction with heart medications.
- To clean the body cells from decay products of alcohol helps vitamin therapy. It involves the introduction of vitamins b, C and nicotinic acid.
- For the prevention of blood loss can use the drugs based on dextran. This substance prevents the adhesion of erythrocytes and platelets in the blood.
- If you have developed a bacterial intoxication or shock applied drug polivinol. It exerts a powerful detoxification effect. Excreted naturally together with toxic substances.
- Used drugs that reduce the likelihood of thrombosis. They cannot be used if the victim suffers from heart failure.
- It is binding prescriptions designed to restore the cardiovascular system. Most commonly used ephedrine, kordiamin, prednisolone. Ephedrine helps to normalize the frequency of contractions of the heart muscle, increase the pressure, increase the concentration of sugar in the blood. It is not allowed to apply for tachycardia, tumors or diseases affecting the myocardium. Kordiamin helps to stimulate the functioning of the Central nervous system. It cannot be used only with epileptic seizures. Prednisolone is prescribed to increase the concentration of glucose in the blood. Anti-inflammatory effect.
Specific drugs and their dosage are selected individually for each patient. Thus take into account not only the degree of damage, but also the individual characteristics of the person, the condition of his immune system.
Prognosis and possible complications
With timely first aid and proper approach to treatment, coma lasts more than six hours. In the future, the person has a chance to fully restore health. But this is possible only under condition of full refusal of alcohol.
If the coma lasted more than 12 hours, can cause irreversible changes in the body. Have to send a lot of effort on the recoverythe normal functioning of the circulatory system and the heart muscle. The victim over a long period will have to take vitamin supplements. They will help to improve brain function, support the liver and kidneys. To restore the water-salt balance, together with vitamins required drinking mineral water or decoctions of herbs.
Restoration of health after the coma is gradual. During this period, the body can occur in many different variations. Alcoholic coma may have the following consequences:
- Partial or complete memory loss.
- A change in behavior. People can be too quick-tempered and irritable, or, conversely, to withdraw into himself.
- The inability to focus.
- Loss simple household skills. Often after a coma, a person has to relearn how to eat, wash and so on.
- Loss of sensation of the limbs, severe swelling.
- Violation of movement coordination.
- Renal failure.
- Increasing the concentration of potassium in the body.
- Bleeding of the mucous membranes.
Often, after the coma, the person experiences a desire to move more and to do something. But during the rehabilitation period of increased physical activity is contraindicated.
In order for the victim was able to return to normal life needed a course of physiotherapy. Families are supposed to teach people to follow the personal hygiene, help in feeding, organize walks in the fresh air, monitor compliance with all recommendations of the attending physician.
Prescriptions drugs when recovering from coma
The methods of traditional medicine are quite effective in the recovery period. They will help boost immunity and give the body strength to cope with the consequences of intoxication. Among the most effective recipes for release:
- Broth hips. Helps to purify the liver, improves the immune system. For its production is enough to steam it in a thermos a couple of tablespoons of dried fruit and leave overnight.
- The recommended consumption of fresh currants or cranberries. They contain large amounts of vitamins.
- Cleanse the liver with the help of radish juice. To do this, pour half a liter of juice and 200 ml of natural honey. This means take 2 tablespoons twice a day.
- Make a collection of St. John's wort, birch buds, immortelle and chamomile. All components take in the amount of 100 grams. A tablespoon of this composition separte a half liters of boiling water. After 15 minutes, the infusion can be filtered. Half cooked liquids you should drink before Breakfast and the second for the night.
Such simple means will help to restore the body. But before applying the consult your doctor.
Alcoholic coma is a serious poisoning coma, which often leads to death. So try to control the amount of alcohol consumed.