IV fluids in cases of poisoning and intoxication
Food poisoning is caused by the action of the toxin, which allocates a pathogen into the body. Poisoning substandard products can lead to dehydration of varying severity. IV fluids in cases of poisoning by foods normalizes water and electrolyte balance, increases urine volume, thus speeding up the elimination of toxins from the body, restores the pH level of the blood.
Indications for the formulation of the IVS are repeated vomiting and profuse diarrhea, is voluntary or forced abandonment of fluid intake, acidosis (increase of acidity), a violation of the quantitative ratio of ions of sodium, chlorine, potassium.
Absolute contraindications for IV drip acute heart failure (cardiac asthma, cardiogenic shock), anuria (absence of urine), pulmonary edema.
Function dropper for poisoning
The system allows you to drip or spray to enter into the bloodstream drugs or biological fluids.
Goal setting drip for food poisoning:
- Replenishing the lost fluid.
- Restoration of circulating blood volume.
- Providing adequate microcirculation.
- Stabilization and oxygen transport functions of blood.
- Adjusting the concentration of plasma in the blood.
- Prevention of thickening of blood.
IV fluids in case of intoxication of the organism, depending on its chemical composition, performs different functions. It is a basic ingredient for human physiological needs in water and electrolytes (salts). Also the dropper can adjust for changes in indicators of homeostasis – constancy of internal environment of the organism:
- recovery protein balance;
- fill the deficit of microelements;
- normalization of the concentration of water areas.
Main groups of solutions for the dropper
Drugs for intravenous injections are divided into two main groups.
The first group of salts (electrolytes) and sugars (glucose). They are:
Solutions of sugars are the main source of water for the body. Prescribers with hydration therapy is the restoration of fluid when dehydration. They revise the deficit of free water (containing no salt). Minimum physiological daily requirement is 1,200 ml. At a poisoning with severe dehydration, this figure increases.
The solutions of electrolytes to replace lost salts. Put them in a large loss of interstitial fluid.
- Isotonic solution of sodium chloride 0,9% (physiological solution). Increases diuresis, is the body's source of sodium and chlorine. Increases the circulating blood volume, but short-lived, as rapidly excreted from the blood. Therefore, the remedy for shock or blood loss less effective, it is prescribed in order to cleanse the body of toxins.
- Ringer Solution. Is saline solution, which is composed of several components. Used for dehydration with acidosis with a large loss of fluid.
- Solutions of glucose. It is a universal anti-toxic agent. Is a source of parenteral (intravenous) nutrition.
- Trisol or disol – normalize electrolyte balance, regulate blood composition.
The second group of solutions containing high-molecular substances. They hold fluid in the vascular system, restores plasma exchange, therefore they are called plasma substitutes. These drugs in large losses of fluid or blood loss quickly increase blood flow to the heart, reduced filling of the heart, stabilize blood pressure. Used as a source of parenteral nutrition in the physiological impossibility of feeding, as they contain amino acids, glucose, lipids.
- Gemodez, this water-salt solution is used in severe intoxication poisoningcaused by intestinal bacteria, in diseases of the liver. Plasma-has a and antitoxic action.
- Polyglukin – plazmozameniteli antishock drug used in blood loss, and intoxication. Replenishes blood volume, prevents the bonding of blood cells.
- Reopoligljukin – substitute plasma. Improves capillary blood flow and microcirculation.
- Reoglumann – substitute. Reduces blood viscosity, inhibits the agglutination of blood cells, and removes toxins. Prescribed for purification of blood during intoxication.
Dropper at home
Common cause statement of IV infusions at home is alcohol poisoning. At home put an IV in cases of acute and chronic intoxication of average weight, in the absence of increasing symptoms of deterioration. The ability to set up a drip at home has its advantages. This allows you to anonymously assist in alcohol addiction.
Function dropper for poisoning:
- The elimination of toxins. The breakdown products of alcohol linger long in the body, leading to morphological changes and functional disorders of internal organs.
- Restoring the salt balance. Alcohol reduces the level of potassium and magnesium, creating a threat of disruptingheart.
- Restoration of acid-alkaline balance. While consumption of alcohol develops acidosis, which leads to slower metabolic processes.
- Thinning of the blood by increasing its volume.
The drugs administered intravenously, prescribed by a doctor. They act quickly and purposefully through bioavailability. In the composition of the dropper with alcohol intoxication can simultaneously enter multiple medicines, depending on severity of poisoning:
- the hepatoprotection (liver protection);
- supporting cardiac function;
- normalizing blood pressure;
- improves the blood flow to the brain;
- sedatives, hypnotics;
Contraindications to the formulation of the dropper are: severe cardiovascular disease, asthma, type I diabetes (insulin dependent), duration of alcohol intake more than two weeks older.
After the dropper complications can occur. The reason is violation of a technology of manipulation, in multiple infusions, in violation of the rules of asepsis.
- Hematoma or diffuse bleeding under the skin. Occurs when breaches of venipuncture. To resolve the hematoma was apply a warm compress.
- Spasm of the vein during puncture.
- Necrosis. The necrosis area of soft tissue when injected under the skin is a potent irritant drugs. The reason is the inept execution of the intravenous formulation of the needle for a dropper.
- Thrombophlebitis. Inflammation of a vein with the subsequent formation of a blood clot. Occurs with frequent punctures of the same vein.
- An air embolism. The ingress of air into a vein for violation of technology of introduction of drugs.
- Sepsis. Blood poisoning the result of gross violations of aseptic technique.
- Damage to nerve trunks. Can occur in two cases: when the wrong choice of location for puncture and contact with irritating substances. The severity of this complication varies from facial palsy to paralysis.
Many believe that after the end of the solution in the dropper, the air trapped in the system will fall into the vein and lead to air embolism. It is a myth. The air will not go in vein as it has its own pressure.
The monitoring of the human condition during dropper for poisoning
Throughout the time of the intravenous injections must continuously assess the patient's condition:
- the frequency of the pulse;
- the color of the skin, lips, nails;
- body temperature;
- blood pressure;
- the depth of breath;
- the work of the kidneys.
Conduct laboratory and clinical research. Before the start of infusion therapy and monitoring take a blood test to determine the content of protein, urea, glucose, minerals (K, Ca, Na, Cl). Assess the speed of blood clotting, prothrombin level, density of urine. The harder the state in cases of poisoning, the more often do tests.
Increased observation set for children, pregnant women, elderly patients and people with renal, cardiac, and pulmonary failure.
It is important to monitor the daily weight loss of the patient. Food poisoning should not exceed 0.5 kg per day. The average 200-300 g.
For infusion therapy determine the composition of medicines, their dosage and rate of infusion.
Drip for food poisoning is determined based on clinical and age characteristics, the degree of risk to the patient. It is the main method of treatment of patients with food poisoning. A drip lets you take the body of heavy state, after which the patient can safely continue the medication.