Chloramphenicol: what helps, abstract, side effects, application
Chloramphenicol is an antibacterial agent used in the treatment of various infections. Often used in Pediatrics and ophthalmology. Medication chloramphenicol helps against many infections, and also effectively eliminates resistant to penicillin and streptomycin microbes.
The drug has a broad spectrum of action: the active substance chloramphenicol inhibits many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, inhibits the reproduction of various pathogens of meningitis, suppurative-infectious diseases, dysentery, and also has a bacteriostatic effect.
Often the drug is used for treatment of various intestinal disorders, cystitis and other diseases of an infectious nature.
Chloramphenicol effectively treats diarrhea, pathology of the digestive tract, provoked by bacteria. Penetrating into the intestinal system, the active ingredient inhibits the production of microbial protein cells that leads to their death.
An antibiotic used for intestinal infections caused by both pathogens. However, the use of chloramphenicol could be advisable: if the diarrhea is not infectious nature, it is necessary to use other means, for example, tetracycline.
The tool has a lower activity against acid-fast bacteria, protozoa, clostridia.
During the local application of the highest concentration of the substance is observed in the iris and on the cornea. When the active ingredient does not affect the lens.
For internal use during vaginal introduction of the drug easily dissolves in the blood. The highest concentration in the blood stream has been observed over several hours. The medication is able to get into the cerebrospinal fluid, and breast milk.
Chloramphenicol, the current component has a bitter taste and is poorly tolerated.
The drug has many adverse effects and contraindications. Therefore, before using must first get acquainted with the instructions for use.
The medication is produced:
- in a solid dosage form containing 0.50 g and 0.25 g of the active ingredient.
- Additional ingredients are potato starch, calcium, stearic acid;
- in the form of drops for the eyes and ears of 0.25% for 5 ml and 10 ml;
- in powder form for injections. In one bottle of 500 or 1000 mg of active substance;
- in the form of ointments and gels for topical use;
- in the form of vaginal suppositories.
Indications for use
Chloramphenicol belongs to a powerful antimicrobial, acute internal inflammation and get rid of infectious processes in the body. Like many antibiotics, his drinking rates.
Indications for the appointment are the following infectious diseases:
- pathology of the visual system: blepharitis, keratitis;
- inflammation of the organs of the ear: otitis;
- food intoxication.
In practice, often used to treat otitis media, accompanied by purulent secretions, as well as to eliminate bacterial rhinitis.
Chloramphenicol is often assigned with repeated vomiting and diarrhea (up to 10-16 times a day) was continued for 2 days. In addition, appropriate use of antibiotics if:
- in the vomit contain blood impurities and bile;
- the patient's condition is characterized by prolonged intoxication;
- fever lasts more than 2 days;
- other drugs showed no efficacy, including sorbents.
About the presence of bacteria in the intestinal system may indicate a festering veins and blood in fecal masses. In these cases, the use of chloramphenicol is considered mandatory.
The ointment is based on it "the Treatment" is prescribed for skin infections of bacterial nature, bedsores, boils, trophic ulcers, infections of wounds, for treatment of cracked nipples in women during lactation.
Candles chloramphenicol is recommended for vaginitis, inflammation of the cervix, and to prevent other gynecological diseases.
Contraindications and side effects
The tool has many negative consequences, may cause the person harm. Sometimes the patient observed the following side effects after use:
- the destruction of the mucous surfaces of the intestinal system;
- allergic reactions such as skin rash;
- nausea, gag reflex;
- dysbacteriosis of the intestine;
- nervous disorders, depression;
- visual and auditory disturbances, hallucinations;
- attaching other types of infections.
Side effects typically occur with long-term use of funds in large quantities. The appearance of pronounced negative symptoms require discontinuation of treatment or dose reduction.
Contraindications to the reception are:
- hypersensitivity to the active substance;
- heart disease;
- vascular pathology;
- severe disorders of liver function and kidney;
- the tendency to allergicmanifestations.
The remedy is not prescribed to pregnant and lactating women, newborns.
Overdose chloramphenicol leads to blanching of skin, pain in the throat, increased body temperature, bleeding, and fatigue. In children possible gray collapse. People with individual intolerance observed flatulence, retching, shortness of breath. Such States require cessation of therapy and the use of symptomatic treatment.
Method of application and doses
How to take chloramphenicol tablets? The drug is consumed half an hour before meals. Dosage selects the specialist with consideration of the disease. Course duration – from 1 week to 10 days. In the absence of negative effects and easy portability substances duration of therapy may be increased to 2 weeks.
Adults appoint 1-2 tablets of 0.25 g 3-4 times a day. The maximum dose should not exceed 2 grams per day.
The most severe cases involve the use of 4 g of medication in 3-4 reception. It is necessary to monitor the condition of the kidneys, liver and blood composition.
Pills to children prescribed with caution, after consultation with a specialist.
Chloramphenicol for children applies on the basis of body weight of the child:
- under 3 years – 10-15 mg per 1 kg;
- with 3 to 8 years – 0.15-2 g;
- over 8 years – 0.2-0.3 grams.
Take the remedy 3 to 4 times a day.
The powder from which the solution is used for intravenous and intramuscular use. In children injections do only muscle. To do this, the contents of the bottle must be dissolved in 2-3 ml of water. Injections is produced in equal time intervals.
The duration of therapy determined by the attending physician.
For the treatment of pathologies of the eye drop solution into the area of the conjunctiva several times a day. The duration of treatment from 5 days to 2 weeks.
Abstract to chloramphenicol indicates that vaginal suppositories should be inserted deeply into the vagina in the supine position three times a day. Maximum dose is 4 suppositories, the duration of treatment – 8-10 days. In some cases, the treatment is extended to 2 weeks.
Often when a serious poisoning of an infectious nature requires the use of antibiotics. Chloramphenicol is effective against almost all types of bacteria, but can have an aggressive action, especially the child's body.