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First aid for the lesions of toxic and hazardous chemicals

Toxic chemical substances (chemicals) are very dangerous to humans. Most often they enter the human body during respiration through the lungs. Some toxic substances can cause death within minutes after contact with them. To death can be quite a few milligrams of poison. This article discusses first aid for injuries of toxic and hazardous chemicals, actions before the arrival of doctors, the foundations and components of medical treatment.

What are chemicals, what are the causes of poisoning them

To the toxic chemicals are chemicals that can cause intoxication by evaporation or leakage from storage tanks. The release into the environment occurs when man-made accidents, wrong treatment. Chemicals enter the body through the respiratory tract.

Please note that the poisoning of chemicals are often massive. Sick all the people who are in a toxic chemicals inside. In the event of severe accidents may occur damage of the people living near production.

To the toxic and hazardous chemicals include:

  • phosgene;
  • chloropicrin;
  • hydrocyanic acid;
  • CYANOGEN chloride;
  • ammonia;
  • Acrylonitrile;
  • chlorine;
  • carbon disulphide;
  • methyl bromide, etc.

It should be noted that poison can a person during use of these substances in the home. Some of them are part of paints, solvents, detergents.

Clinical signs of damage to hazardous chemicals

The symptoms of poisoning and intoxication depend on the type of substance that caused the intoxication. All chemicals are divided into groups depending on the organ systems that they affect in the first place, and the symptoms of poisoning by them.

The table below presents the main groups of toxic chemicals and symptoms which manifested intoxication.

The name of the group The names of the chemicals Symptoms and clinical signs
Suffocating chemicals
  • phosgene;
  • chlorine;
  • the chloropicrin.
  • suffocating dry paroxysmal cough, during intoxication with phosgene departs bloody sputum;
  • burning and pains in the eyes, excessive production of tears;
  • hypersalivation;
  • severe pain in the chest, worse during cough develops as a result of chemical burns of the lung tissue;
  • dyspnea, progressive respiratory failure. In severe poisoning, edema of the lungs.
Chemicals with a common toxic effect
  • hydrogen cyanide.
  • hypotension – sudden decrease in level of arterial pressure;
  • shortness of breath of mixed character;
  • rapid thready, weak pulse;
  • vomiting and diarrhea;
  • strong pressive headache, dizziness;
  • noise and buzzing in the ears.
With a rear naked choke and a common toxic effect
  • nitrile of acrylic acid;
  • disulfide hydrogen;
  • sulfur dioxide;
  • the oxides of nitrogen.
  • lacrimation, increased production of saliva;
  • dry suffocating cough;
  • shortness of breath;
  • metallic taste in the mouth;
  • nausea and repeated profuse vomiting;
  • cramps in the abdomen, intestinal colic;
  • profuse diarrhea;
  • tachycardia when the heart rate exceeds 100 beats/min;
  • loss of consciousness, falling into a coma,
  • pale skin.

In the case of severe poisoning, death may occur during the first 5-10 minutes.

Poisons affecting the nervous system
  • the hydrogen sulfide.
  • severe headache, dizziness;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • hallucinations;
  • seizures in all groups of skeletal muscles;
  • disturbance of consciousness;
  • falling into a deep coma;
  • lacrimation.
Toxins that affect the nervous system, with suffocating effect
  • hydrazine;
  • ammonia;
  • heptyl.
  • partial or complete loss of vision;
  • lacrimation, increased secretion of saliva;
  • suffocating cough;
  • loss of consciousness, falling into a coma,
  • in contact with skin or mucous membranes develops a burn.
Metabolic toxins
  • methyl chloride;
  • the ethylene oxide.
  • the fall in blood pressure (hypotension);
  • rapid pulse (tachycardia);
  • nausea, vomiting, diarrhea;
  • pain in the abdomen;
  • anuria – absence of urine (due to kidney failure);
  • falling into a coma;
  • convulsions (as in epilepsy);
  • respiratory failure.

First aid

First aid for poisoning by chemicals is the people who are close with the victims. It doesn't have to be doctors. You should act quickly, smoothly and accurately. No time for panicking.

Remember that first-aid first-aid in case of chemical poisoning may depend on the survival of the affected person.

Below, we systematically describe the action that can help the person until the arrival of the ambulance:

  1. Remove affected person to fresh air. Entering the room with the contaminated air, take care of your security. Wear a respirator or gas mask. If you assessing the situation,understand that your life is in danger, save yourself and do not enter the contaminated area.
  2. Call the ambulance and rescuers from Ministry of emergency situations. On the phone, tell the dispatcher about what happened, and what are the estimated number of people affected.
  3. If the injured person is conscious, give him to drink plain water or sweet tea. Talk to him, may wash his face with plain water.
  4. In contact of chemical with skin or mucous membranes should wash affected area under running water for 15 minutes.
  5. If you have a any sorbents can give them to the patient. These substances are a bit lower toxicity, eliminate nausea and diarrhea.
  6. In the event of loss of patient consciousness, lay it on a flat surface. The first step is to ensure airway patency. For this you need to turn his head to one side. To improve circulation to the brain and heart, lift his legs. Monitor the presence of a pulse and breathing. In their absence, proceed to chest compressions.

Components of first aid

The first medical aid (PMP) conducted by a medical team arrived on the call. It can only be carried out in the absence of danger to doctors from SMP. If the victim is in the area of air pollution, the doctors are waiting for the arrival of rescuers who will be able to make out.

First aid for the lesions of toxic and hazardous chemical substances consists of:

  • connect the oxygen via a facial mask;
  • the introduction of solutions to reduce intoxication intravenously through a drip;
  • the regulation of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems with the help of medications;
  • washing and treatment of the skin exposed to the chemical;
  • symptomatic treatment, eg, vomiting introduces osetron or reglan, in pain – analgesics;
  • with the development of clinical death is carried out cardio-pulmonary resuscitation.

After first aid, doctors transported the patient to the intensive care unit or in toxicology.

Treatment of poisoning by chemicals

Treatment of poisoning by dangerous chemical substances is carried out in a hospital. Its volume and duration depends on the etiology of the disease and the severity of the patient's condition. In parallel with the treatment is a detailed examination of the patient, the purpose of which is the diagnosis, identification of complications and comorbidities.

Therapy of intoxication with poisonous chemical substances consists of:

  • ensure full oxygenation of the patient. If necessary, it connects to the oxygen;
  • the introduction of antidotes. For example, in cases of poisoning by hydrogen sulfide helps amyl nitrite, during intoxication by chlorine antidote is the oxygen and atropine. Some chemicals there is no antidote, for example, phosgene;
  • hemodialysis. This procedure is performed in severe intoxication syndrome, kidney disease, the development of anuria. With the help of artificial kidney is cleansing the blood of toxins;
  • rich IVS. Solutions help to accelerate the elimination of chemicals, eliminate dehydration, fighting intoxication, shock;
  • intravenous or intramuscular administration of medications;
  • with the development of chemical burns treatment skin. The patient required full anesthesia. When you lose large areas of skin of patients is administered in a medically induced coma and prepared for transplantation of the skin;
  • burns of the respiratory tract are used for inhalation of medicinal healing and moisturizing agents.

Please note that in case of poisoning with hazardous chemicals can cause severe surgical complications, such as acute pancreatitis, gastrointestinal bleeding. Under these conditions, a surgical intervention.

Toxic chemicals are very dangerous to humans and can lead to death. With the development of intoxication with chemicals, you should immediately call the brigade SMP, self in this case is prohibited. Hospitalitynet victims toxicology or intensive care. In the hospital under treatment and examination of the patient. The prognosis depends on timely treatment for medical help.