First aid in case of poisoning by disinfectants
First aid if poisoning disinfectants should be directed to the excretion of harmful substances by washing the stomach and mucous membranes that have undergone contact. Usually intoxication is due to the improper handling of disinfectants and rules of their application. In order to properly provision of first aid, you need to know what type of disinfectant the poisoning occurred.
What is a disinfectant and where they apply
Disinfectants that are used in medicine, active chemicals are designed for processing medical supplies and equipment for sterilization and removal from the surface of pathogens. Such funds there are many, and they all need to have a broad spectrum of action.
Disinfectant has antimicrobial effects and is suitable not only for the disinfection of medical equipment, but also for cleaning. These chemicals are in the manufacture of the following form:
- powders, pills, granules that dissolve in water to create a disinfecting solution;
- liquid funds solutions, emulsions, pastes;
- varnishes, paints, sprays, or wipes impregnated with disinfectant;
In addition, disinfectants are divided into several groups. Speedy identification of which group a disinfectant, which have caused human poisoning, allows you to choose the correct method of emergency removing harmful substances from the body of the victim. There are several groups of disinfectants and the principles of first aid in case of intoxication, the resulting contact with each of them differ. The main groups of disinfectants:
- Oxygenated bleach. The main active ingredients is hydrogen peroxide and active oxygen. The disinfectant is odorless and has a profound antimicrobial effect. However, such funds will corrode the metal.
- Aldehydesilane. Such tools are based on formaldehyde, aldehyde of succinic acid and others. They are used in cleaning of equipment and medical devices, as it does not contribute to the corrode;
- Geluidsopname disinfectants are products that contain chlorine, iodine, bromine, and composite elements based on them. Also used to disinfect medical equipment, but only one that is made of glass, plastic, rubber, or devices that do not corrode.
- Guanidinoacetate. They include active polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride, chlorhexidine, etc. These funds provide long-lasting antibacterial action.
Also often used to disinfect alcohol-containing means, less commonly used surfactants, phenolic and acid-based.
First aid for poisoning
General principles of first aid in case of poisoning by disinfectants is the ventilation, gastric lavage, or the cleansing of the skin and mucous membranes from disinfectants, and excretion of toxins through the ingestion of milk with soda or Borjomi.
When detected, the victim should immediately call an ambulance. We must act differently depending on what kind of disinfectant caused poisoning and anywhere substance:
- When skin contact with the victim needs to remove clothing and to remove the vehicle from the body using a cotton pad. If possible, it is better to wash the affected area under running water. Soap is good too suppresses the effect of the disinfectant, so when washing you can use it. If the skin got a formaldehyde substance, for washing better to use a five percent solution of ammonia.
- When the disinfectant gets into eyes, thoroughly rinse them with clean water or a very weak solution of baking soda for 5-10 minutes. If vision has deteriorated eyes or bake, then irritation to the end is not removed. In this case, you must drip into the conjunctive bag with a few drops of 30% solution of sulfacetamide. If the victim feels pain, it is necessary to drip 2% novocaine or tetracaine. Eye drops should be only after washing.
- When a toxic substance enters the oral cavity must be thoroughly rinsed with water, preferably boiled and rinse with a solution of soda;
- If the disinfectant got into the stomach, you need to give the victim drink several glasses of warm water or solution of potassium permanganate pale pink color, then induce vomiting.
- If inside fall of chlorinated disinfectants to the affected do wash 2% solution of hyposulphite of sodium and otpaivat diluted ammonia (5-15 drops in a glass of water), magnesia (1-2 tablespoons per Cup of water) and milk with the addition of baking soda. Washing produce and when the body fell formaldehyde. For this make a solution of water and liquid ammonia, 3% sodium carbonate or sodium acetate (ammonium). In all cases, after manipulatingyou need to give the victim to drink large amount of water.
- If intoxication occurred from inhalation of disinfecting gases, it is necessary to help the victim as quickly as possible to leave the room and rinse the nasopharynx. In addition, to get rid of nausea and lead to feelings will help the inhalation of ammonia. In severe cases need hospitalization.
Ingestion of disinfectant, which is composed of acid, vomiting cause, as it is possible to obtain an additional burn of the esophagus and oral cavity. Quickly remove toxins in this case, it helps the milk with water or mineral water, as well as the administration of activated charcoal and a laxative.
In particularly severe cases, when a large amount of the disinfectant got on the mucous membranes and inside, a person can decrease breathing. Then you need to immediately begin artificial ventilation of the lungs. If followed by cardiac arrest, conduct external cardiac massage. When the poisoning is accompanied by nose bleeding, the victim must take a horizontal position and put your head back. You need to make a cold compress or ice to the nose and back of the head. Sometimes after this the state patient is prescribed a course of sedatives and expectorate drugs.
Signs of lung toxicity
Poisoning of disinfectants can manifest itself immediately. Half an hour after contact with the substance may increase the body temperature to 37 degrees – it can already be considered a symptom of poisoning. The fever may persist for a long time. In addition, a person may feel scratchy, or sore throat that persists to the day. Also one of the symptoms of mild poisoning can be considered nausea and headache.
Due to the high toxicity of the processing surface disinfectants is not recommended for women during pregnancy and children, as even a small amount of active active substance can lead to disastrous consequences.
During the processing of disinfectants, which are odorless, you need to use rubber gloves, but if the tool is too strong odor, you need to wear a respirator or gauze. After contact with descrestion need to thoroughly wash hands with soap and water. If you behave with such chemicals carefully and observe the safety rules, you can avoid poisoning by disinfectants.