First aid for acute poisoning
Acute poisoning occurs when it enters the human body of toxic substances. This painful condition can happen after eating the food, drinks, medication and after contact with different chemicals. Such intoxication is characterized by sudden weakness, excessive sweating, vomiting, cramps and discoloration of the skin. Can be group lose people who dined together or had contact with hazardous substances. First aid for acute poisoning must be immediately. This will keep the affected not only health, but also in some cases life.
What can cause acute poisoning
Acute poisoning can be caused different causes:
- Medications in high doses or with expired shelf life.
- Food products of improper quality.
- Toxicity household chemicals.
- Poisons vegetation and animals.
Way of hit of poison in a human body is different. Perhaps the penetration of toxins through the digestive tract, respiratory system, the eyes or through the injection of poisons. Toxins can act locally as that happens very seldom and spread a toxic effect on the entire body.
Often, acute poisoning is diagnosed in younger children. Out of curiosity, the children take without asking medications and cleansers taste.
The basic principles of first aid
The General algorithm consists of a series of measures aimed at maintaining the patient until the paramedics arrive:
- At first the symptoms of acute poisoning, call an ambulance.
- When respiratory failure or malfunction of the heart, performed CPR.
- Carry out activities aimed at rapid withdrawal nevsosavsheysya toxins in the body.
- Use specialized antidotes.
The arrived doctors have to show the remnants of food eaten by the victim, a box of medication or container from the chemicals that caused the intoxication. This will allow you to quickly identify the toxin and to assign adequate treatment to the victim.
Resuscitation aimed at restoring heart function hold only in the absence of a pulse in the carotid artery. Before that, a soft cloth is removed from the oral cavity of the patient the remnants of vomit. Indirect heart massage and artificial lung ventilation is carried out very carefully so as not to aggravate the situation.
The removal from the body remnants of the poison that do not have time to absorb, produce in different ways, depending on the localization process.
The removal of toxins on the skin and eyes
When poison is on the skin, these areas are washed with running water for 20 minutes. Leftovers can be gently removed with a cotton swab. It is not recommended to use alcohol and detergents, as well as rubbing the affected area with a sponge. All this leads to expansion of capillaries, and the strongest absorption of the poison.
If a toxic substance has got on mucous membranes of eyes, you must moisten the swab in water or milk and rinse the conjunctiva. Washed eyes of different tampons to avoid severe destruction of the organs of vision.
Prevention of absorption of toxins in cases of poisoning by acids and alkalis
If the poisoning provoked by the burning chemicals, then give the victim any enveloping products. It can be fat, butter, milk, egg whites or jelly.
If poisoning hot substances cannot be performed gastric lavage in the home. It threatens great damage to the digestive organs!
The removal of toxins in food or drug poisoning
If poisoning is caused by poor nutrition or an overdose of medication, first aid is provided in the following sequence:
- A large volume of water washed out the stomach. At home take for washing at least 3 liters of pure water or with the addition of salt. You can use potassium permanganate solution, which is pre-filtered to prevent the ingress of crystals on the gastric mucosa.
- Do a cleansing enema, which take the starch water, decoction of chamomile or solution regidrona. The procedure is performed to clean the waste waters.
- Give adsorbents, as first aid can be given any medicines in this group that is in the house – APSCO, POLYSORB, smectite, activated charcoal. All sorbents necessarily diluted with a small amount of water.
- Otpaivat the patient a large volume of liquid. Used decoctions of raisins, dried apricots, green apples, or just clean water without gas. To drink add some honey so the faster restores the electrolyte balance in the body.
Children under 3 years of gastric lavage and enema with caution. Because of the small weight may experience rapid dehydration, which threatens severe conditions.
The use of different antidotes, if any, is allowed only in the hospital environment. In addition, the conditions of the hospitalconduct and manipulation, aimed at the rapid elimination of toxins from the bloodstream, for example, forced diuresis.
A popular way of first aid
Often used for poisoning people's ways to alleviate the condition of the victim:
- If no sorbents or activated carbon, can be used charcoal from birch.
- After the cessation of gagging the victim give a decoction of yarrow. This herb has antibacterial action and can help with food poisoning.
- Give a decoction of rice with raisins. Per liter of water take two tablespoons of rice and a tablespoon of raisins. Boil, strain and drink small amounts every 15 minutes.
For otpevanie children use honey with lemon juice dissolved in warm water. A delicious drink children drink with pleasure, in contrast to the solution regidrona, which is very hard to drink even for an adult.
Features of first aid
There are several features that must be considered when providing first aid:
- In no case should one try to wash out the stomach of the victim, if there is any suspicion of perforation of the stomach or esophagus.
- Do not attempt to feed the patient with acute poisoning immediately after decrease the main symptoms. Any food trapped in the stomach, again, provoke an attack uncontrollable vomiting. After poisoning are shown fasting during the day.
- It is impossible to self-medicate and start to drink antibiotics without a prescription. These medicines are prescribed only after laboratory studies, through which identified the causative agent.
At the first sign of acute poisoning, you must call the medical team. Especially if the poisoning has occurred in children and caused by chemicals, drugs or poisons. Only a qualified doctor will be able to properly assess the situation and make every effort to avoid the consequences.