Antidotes for poisoning: table, classification
Toxic substances that can poison, lurk at every turn – they are found in plants, animals, drugs and various substances that surround people in everyday life. Most poisons are lethal. To neutralize their impact, the use of antidotes in case of poisoning, a table of classification which are presented in this article.
Overview of antidotes for poisoning
Like any strong medicine, an antidote given in case of poisoning, have their own pharmacological properties, which evaluate the specificity of different drugs. To them in particular are:
- time of admission;
- dose use;
- side effects.
Depending on the period and severity of the disease the value of antidote therapy may vary. Thus, treatment of poisoning antidotes are effective only at an early stage, called toxicogenic.
The duration of the stage varies and depends on the substance that caused the poisoning. The greatest duration of this phase is 8-12 hours and refers to the effects on the body of heavy metals. The minimum time applies to poisoning with cyanides, chlorinated hydrocarbons and other highly toxic and bystrorastvorimami connections.
You should not use antidote therapy, if there are doubts about the reliability of the diagnosis and the type of poisoning, as due to a certain specificity to this kind of treatment can have double the damage to the body, because often the antidote is not less toxic than the subject of intoxication.
If you missed the first stage of the disease and develop severe in the blood stream, in addition to antidote therapy, the effectiveness of which will be now reduced, should the event of urgent CPR.
Antidotes are indispensable for the irreversibility conditions of a delayed or acute poisoning, but in the second phase of the disease, called somatogenic, cease to have a therapeutic effect.
All the antidotes in the mechanism of action can be divided into three groups:
- causal – weaken or eliminate all symptoms of intoxication;
- pathogenetic weaken or eliminate those symptoms of poisoning, which correspond to specific pathogenic phenomenon;
- symptomatic weaken or eliminate some symptoms of poisoning, such as pain, cramps, agitation.
Thus, effective antidotes that are more likely to help in cases of poisoning, have a high level of toxicity. And Vice versa – the безопаснеt the antidote, the less it is effective.
Classification of antidotes
Types of antidotes have developed S. N. Golikov – it was his version of the classification is often used by modern medicine:
- local action of antidotes, in which the absorption of the active substance tissue of the body to neutralize poison;
- obscherezorbtivnoe action based on the effect of the chemical conflict between the antidote and the poison;
- competitive action of antidotes, in which the poison is displaced and binds to harmless compounds based on the chemical identity between the antidote and enzymes as well as other elements of the body;
- physiological action is based on the antithesis between the behavior of the poison and the antidote in the body, which allows you to remove the violation and restore normal condition;
- immunological action is to vaccination and the use of specific serum under specific poisoning.
Antidotes are classified and separated also by nature. Separately distinguish antidote:
- animal/bacterial toxicity;
- toxins of fungi;
- from the plant and the alkaloid;
- when the drug poisoning.
Depending on the kind of poison, poisoning can be food and non-food. Any toxicity leading to deterioration of the patient, must be neutralized by antidotes. They prevent the spread and poisoning poisons in the organs, system, biological processes, and slow functional impairment caused by intoxication.
The condition of acute indigestion occurs after eating poor quality food or drinking called food poisoning. It occurs when receiving spoiled food infected with organisms, or which have got dangerous chemical compounds. The main symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
There are infectious and toxic poisoning: sources of the first are all sorts of bacteria, germs, viruses, and protozoa that enter the body with food. Toxic poisoning is called once ingested poisons, heavy metals, non-edible plants and other products with critical levels of toxins.
Manifestations of the disease develop within 2-6 hours after exposure and are characterized by rapid development of symptoms. Among the infectious poisoning, the greatest danger of infection is posed by meat and dairy products, which, if they have the infection and have undergone insufficient thermal treatment can cause serious harm, because they represent the ideal environment for reproductionbacteria and other organisms.
Ways to identify dangerous products
Externally, fresh and delicious product can also be dangerous, as initially selected microorganisms multiply gradually, but their very presence threatens to ruin the functionality of the gastrointestinal tract. So first and most important rule of food consumption is to control security. Food products can only be purchased at specially designated places they should be sold by people who have medknizhki. Food must be kept in the premises, the last health inspection was in the system and eligible for activity. Of course, a variety of eateries with Shawarma, street cakes and other food of questionable points in this list are not included.
Infectious poisoning is extremely dangerous and can lead to infection. Freshly prepared foods have minimal chances to be infected, but have lain down food becoming potentially hazardous within a few hours.
In addition to the expiration date, which you should always check, even if the purchase is made at a large trading network, for signs that may indicate that the food lay more than the period include the following:
- broken package, the traces of defects on the pack, which led to the violation of its integrity;
- unusual, too strong odor or, on the contrary, his absence;
- delamination consistency, its heterogeneity;
- any bubbles while mixing, if it is not mineral water;
- color and smell does not match the proper – especially if it is meat, eggs, milk;
- the presence of sediment, opacity, any suspicious changes the usual product.
The presence of these characteristics should stop from buying such a product and choose the one that is not in doubt.
Toxin or microbe that has entered the organism, can act in different ways, but there are common symptoms that occur most frequently. This temperature, weakness, disruption of the gastrointestinal tract. Doctors often note the patient loss of appetite, nausea, pain and bloating in the abdomen. The patient is weak, looks pale, he can be a cold sweat and reduced pressure.
Toxic poisoning symptoms and effects are more serious: the patient shows signs of dehydration, impaired vision, he sees the split items, there may be temporary blindness. Possible salivation, hallucinations, paralysis, loss of consciousness, convulsions, coma.
Risk group – young children, pregnant women and the elderly. For them, the signs may be more dramatic, the disease has a poor prognosis.
The primary symptoms of poisoning with certain toxins can appear in an hour and grow up to a few days. It is important to identify the disease and begin treatment.
You should immediately call an ambulance and start to provide the victim first aid: gastric lavage with baking soda or potassium permanganate, application of chelators, drinking large amounts of fluid. In this state, you must wait for the ambulance and not to take other treatment. Antibiotics, bifidobacteria, any antiemetic drugs or alcohol, and any medications will be given without a confirmed diagnosis and if you suspect a poisoning, can be detrimental to the person and substantially complicate the treatment.
All further actions must be conducted in a hospital under the supervision of experts. With timely treatment the prognosis is often favorable.
The antidotes used in acute intoxications
At the first sign of acute poisoning first need to diagnose the nature of intoxication. This will require a data history, a variety of evidence – the remains of the containers with traces of use poisonous liquid and otherwise. Also should pay attention to the presence of a specific smell, which can determine the nature of the substance that caused the poisoning. Should immediately capture and transmit all the data to physicians about clinical symptoms of poisoned.
Toxicomania phase of poisoning – the first stage of intoxication in which the poison has not had time to affect the entire body, and has not yet reached its maximum concentration in the blood. But at this stage there is a loss of the body toxins with the characteristic manifestations of toxic shock.
Treatment it is important to start as soon as possible. Usually, the doctor will apply help toxicomany in the first phase, until the patient has been admitted. Since at this stage the provision of or failure to provide assistance is decided the entire future forecast.
Primarily used gastric lavage, enterosorbents and administered laxatives, then injected the antidote.
In certain types of poisoning gastric lavage through the probe, so such issues should be discussed with your doctor.
Symptomatic treatment is the maintenance and control of the functions of life-support. If the violation of the airway, you should release it in the desired manner. Analgesics are used for pain relief, but only tothe process of gastric lavage is administered glucose and ascorbic acid.
A table of the most common poisoning antidotes
|Methyl alcohol, ethylene glycol||Ethyl alcohol|
|Chlorine||Morphine, atropine, ephedrine, calcium chloride, aminophylline, diphenhydramine, hydrocortisone, oxygen|
|Paracetamol, cracker||Lipoic (thioctic) acid, herb milk Thistle, NAC|
|Potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate)||Ascorbic acid|
|Heavy metals (lead, copper, mercury)||Deferoxamine, kuprenil, unitiol|
|Carbon monoxide||Cytochrome C|
In acute poisoning needs urgent hospitalization in the intensive care unit. The doctor continued lavage of the gastrointestinal tract, is carried out artificial lung ventilation, treatment with diuretics, antidotes and antagonists.
But the most effective results are achieved by using artificial detoxification, consisting of hemosorption, hemodialysis, plasmapheresis, peritoneal dialysis. Using these steps is more intensive excretion of poisons and toxins.
General table of antidotes in cases of poisoning by toxins and poisons
You must take the antidote, not only to prevent the defeat of the organism with toxic substances, but also to suspend certain symptoms which develop on the background of poisoning. Need to develop and apply the right scheme which will be effective in each individual case, to prevent intoxication. Some poisons have a delayed start and their appearance can be sudden and immediately go into the clinical picture.
|The group of toxins||Antidotes|
|Cyanides, hydrocyanic acid||Amylnitrite, propylnitrate, antizion, dikopoltseva salt of EDTA, methylene blue, sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate|
|Iron salts||Desferrioxamine (Desferal)|
|Opiates, morphine, codeine, promedol||Nalmefene, naloxone, Levorphanol, nalorphine|
|Arsenic||Unitiol, sodium thiosulfate, kuprenil, disodium salt|
|Silver nitrate||Sodium chloride|
|Mercury vapor||Unitiol, kuprenil, sodium thiosulfate, PENTACON|
|Ethyl alcohol||Caffeine, atropine|
|Cyanide||Amylnitrite, Kronospan, sodium thiosulfate, methylene blue|
|Hydrogen sulfide||Methylene blue amyl nitrite|
Method of administration, dosage forms and dosing of antidotes in case of poisoning should be agreed with your doctor, it is also necessary to confirm the diagnosis with tests to properly guide therapy.
Any antidote is the same chemical substance, careless handling which can also harm the body. The effect of the antidote is achieved through a chemical reaction that occurs when interacting it with a source of poisoning.
Table of antidotes in cases of poisoning by substances with different nature
From animal/bacterial intoxication
|The name of the poison||The antidote|
|Snake||Heparin, antivenin – intravenous|
|Bee/wasp||Subcutaneous epinephrine/aferin, intravenous prednisone, metaSAN|
|The spider's venom the black widow||Intravenous magnesium sulfate, calcium chloride, antivenin|
|Scorpion venom||Subcutaneous atropine, ergotamine|
When drug poisoning
|The name of the medication||The antidote|
|Pilocarpine||Atropine subcutaneously or intravenously|
|Heparin||Intravenous Protamine sulfate|
|Benzocaine||Intravenous glucose and methylene blue|
|Caffeine||The antidote is missing|
The antidotes of plant and alkaloid
|The name of the toxins||The antidote|
|Quinine||Tannin, activated charcoal, laxative|
|Hemlock||The IV glucose+novocaine|
|Nicotine||The IV glucose+novocaine|
Antidotes to the toxins of mushrooms
|The name fungi and toxins||The antidote|
|Paulinic bitter||Atropine subcutaneously or intramuscularly|
Details of therapy in some cases of poisoning
Consider therapy antidote for the most common and dangerous poisoning details:
- Chlorine. His pair is able to reflexively stop breathing, cause a chemical burnand pulmonary edema. In severe poisoning, death occurs within a few minutes. If you lose the toxin is of medium or mild gravity, prescribe effective therapy. First and foremost, the victim is taken to fresh airin severe cases do the bleeding, wash out eyes with novocaine, give antibiotics penicillin group, cardiovascular drugs. Treated with morphine, atropine, ephedrine, calcium chloride, diphenhydramine, hydrocortisone.
- Salts of heavy metals. Necessary drink plenty of liquids, diuretic drugs, chelators. If gastric lavage is to use a probe, enter through it unitiol. Use laxative.
- Organophosphorus compounds. This household and medical chemicals that are used widely as a class of Posov. When poisoning by these toxins affects primarily the skin and mucosa. Serve as an antidote calcium gluconate, lactate. Apply a mixture of egg protein and milk. Need gastric lavage of saline or soda solution.
To date, developed emergency measures for timely response in case of poisoning of different degrees in order to effectively eliminate all the consequences. In addition to the use of the antidote, the measures aimed at the prevention and treatment of intoxication as follows:
- Emergency measures, which consist in cleansing the gastro-intestinal tract, mucosa, and skin.
- Accelerated measures that used different kinds of diuretics, absorbing toxins, sorbents and other processes aimed at the elimination of toxins from the body.
- Remedial measures aimed at therapy of vital functions of the body systems and individual organs.
- Process oxygen saturation necessary for the poisoned organism.
Subject to the rules of hygiene, careful attention to consumption of food and water, vigilance with respect to chemicals and household utensils, prevention of poisoning most effective. But if the poisoning still occurred, you should immediately take measures, the first of which – call the ambulance. It should be remembered that the effectiveness of treatment increases significantly with timely and correct approach.