Laser radiation and its influence on the human body
Laser radiation is highly directional forced flow of energy. It is continuous, one power or the pulse, where the power periodically reaches a certain peak. The energy is formed using the quantum generator laser. The energy flux is an electromagnetic wave, which extend parallel relative to each other. This creates a minimum angle of dispersion of light and some precise direction.
The scope of application of laser radiation
The properties of laser radiation allows its use in various spheres of human activity:
- science – research, tests, experiments, discoveries;
- military and defense industry and space navigation;
- production and technical sphere;
- localized heat treatment – welding, cutting, engraving, soldering;
- home use laser sensors to barcode reading device for reading compact discs, pointer;
- laser deposition to improve the wear resistance of the metal;
- the creation of holograms;
- improvement of optical devices;
- chemical industry – the launch and analysis of reactions.
The application of laser in medicine
Laser radiation in medicine – a breakthrough in the treatment of patients requiring surgical intervention. The laser is used for the production of surgical instruments.
Undeniable advantages of the surgical treatment laser scalpel is obvious. It allows you to make a bloodless incision of soft tissues. It provides instant spikes of small vessels and capillaries. During use of such a tool surgeon sees the operative field. Laser energy flow splits at a certain distance with no contact with internal organs and blood vessels.
An important priority is to ensure absolute sterility. Strict direction of the rays allows to perform surgery with minimal trauma. Rehabilitation period of patients is much reduced. Faster returns the disabled person. A distinctive feature of the use of a laser scalpel is a painless postoperative period.
The development of laser technologies has allowed to expand opportunities of its application. Was discovered properties of laser radiation have a positive effect on the skin. Therefore, it is actively used in cosmetology and dermatology.
Depending on its type, the human skin differently absorbs the rays and reacts on them. The devices of laser radiation can generate the desired wavelength in each case.
- hair removal is destruction of hair follicles and hair removal;
- the treatment of acne;
- removal of pigment and birthmarks;
- skin resurfacing;
- application in bacterial lesions of the epidermis (disinfects, kills pathogens), radiation of the laser prevents the spread of infection.
Ophthalmology is the first industry, which used laser radiation. Trends in the use of lasers for microsurgery of the eye:
- laser photocoagulation – the use of thermal properties for the treatment of vascular eye diseases (vascular lesions of the cornea, retina);
- photodestructive – dissection of the tissues at the peak laser power (secondary cataract and incising);
- fotospuredee – prolonged exposure to heat, used in inflammatory processes of the optic nerve, conjunctivitis;
- fotogaleria – the gradual destruction of the tissues used for the treatment of dystrophic changes of the cornea, removes its turbidity, surgical treatment of glaucoma;
- laserlipolisi – has anti-inflammatory, resolving effect, improves trophic eyes, it is used to treat sclerites, exudation in the chamber of eyes, hemophthalmos.
Laser irradiation is used in cancer of the skin. The most effective laser for the removal of melanoblastoma. Sometimes the method used to treat cancer of the esophagus or rectum stage 1-2. In case of deep tumor location and metastases of the laser is not effective.
The risks posed by the laser man
The influence of laser radiation on the human body can be negative. Exposure can be direct, diffuse and reflected. The negative impact is provided by light and thermal properties of the rays. The degree of damage depends on several factors – length of the electromagnetic wave, the location of the impact, the absorption capacity of the tissues.
Most exposed to the laser energy eye. The retina is very sensitive, so often happen her burns. The consequences are partial loss of vision, irreversible blindness. The laser source is an infra – red instruments emitters of visible light.
The symptoms of lesion of iris, retina, cornea, lens laser:
- pain and spasms in the eye;
- swelling of the eyelids;
- clouding of the lens.
The irradiation of moderate intensity arise thermal burns of the skin. Contact the laser and skin temperature rises sharply. The boiling and evaporation of intracellular and interstitial fluid. The skin becomes red. Pressure ruptures tissue structures. Appears on the skin swelling, in some cases, intradermalhemorrhage. Later on the burn appear necrotic (dead) areas. In severe cases, charring of the skin occurs instantly.
A distinguishing feature of the laser burn – clear border of skin lesions, and bubbles are formed in the epidermis, not under it.
Treating skin lesions in the affected area, it becomes insensitive, and the erythema appears in a few days.
Laser radiation of the infrared spectrum can penetrate deeply through tissue and affect internal organs. The specificity of a deep burn is an alternation of healthy and damaged tissue. Initially, when the rays of the person does not feel pain. The most vulnerable organ is the liver.
The effects of radiation on the body causes functional disorders of the Central nervous system, cardiovascular activity.
- changes in blood pressure;
- slow heartbeat;
- excessive sweating;
- unexplained General fatigue;
Precautions and protection from laser radiation
Most at risk of exposure are those whose activity is connected with the application of quantum generators.
In accordance with sanitary norms of the laser beam is divided into four hazard classes. For the human body, the danger is the second, third, fourth grades.
Technical methods of protection from laser radiation:
- Proper planning of industrial buildings, interior finish must comply with the safety regulations (the laser beams should not specularly reflected).
- Proper positioning emitting units.
- Fencing of the zone of possible irradiation.
- Order and observance of rules of maintenance and operation of equipment.
Another protection from the laser. It includes the following tools: goggles against laser radiation, protective covers and screens, a set of workwear (technological gowns and gloves), lenses and prisms reflecting rays. All employees on a regular basis should undergo preventive medical examinations.
The use of laser in everyday life, too, is hazardous to health. Improper operation of the light pointers, laser flashlights can cause irreparable harm to humans. Protection from laser radiation provides simple rules:
- It is impossible to direct the source radiation on glass and mirrors.
- Strictly prohibited to direct the laser into the eyes of yourself or another person.
- Store gadgets with laser radiation it is necessary out of reach of children.
The action of the laser, depending on the modification of the emitter is thermal energy, photochemical and mechanical. The greatest danger is the laser direct radiation, with high intensity, narrow and limited focus of the beam, high density radiation. To dangerous factors that contribute to getting exposure, is the production high-voltage, air pollution, chemicals, intense noise, x-ray radiation. Biological effects from laser radiation are divided into primary (local burn), and secondary (nonspecific changes as a response of the whole organism). It should be remembered that the thoughtless application of home-made lasers, light pointers, lamps, laser flashlights can cause others irreparable harm.