The effect of clonidine on the human body
Clonidine belongs to the group of antigipertenziveh funds that reduces the level of blood pressure. It affects the centres regulating the pressure, located in the brain. The effect of clonidine on the human body causes these effects:
- reducing the frequency of contractions of the myocardium and the peripheral resistance of the blood vessels. Such changes are accompanied by a drop in blood pressure;
- inhibition of the function of the nervous system that is manifested by reduced body temperature, sedative and hypnotic effects on the patient;
- the increase in renal blood flow;
- reduction of intraocular pressure;
- the pain-killing effect;
- the drug is also able to eliminate symptoms of opiate withdrawal. These patients are often observed haunting sense of fear, disorder of the heart muscle. Under such manifestations of chronic alcoholism are also prescribed clonidine.
How does clonidine per person?
After taking internally it is completely transformirovalsya in the digestive canal. The bioavailability of this material is 100%. The maximum amount of clonidine in the blood stream is achieved in 1-2 hours.
A drop in blood pressure is observed after 30-60 minutes from taking the drug. This effect lasts for 8-12 hours. Clonidine has the ability to actively penetrate into all tissues of the people, especially in the area of the Central nervous system.
About 50% of the funds processed in the liver is converted to inactive substances. They are excreted through the kidneys. The average half-life is 12 hours. The allocation of clonidine significantly slower in patients with chronic renal failure. These processes women are much slower than men.
Indications for use
In modern medicine clonidine used at all stages and clinical forms of hypertension. Also doctors recommend clonidine.
- hypertensive crisis in which there is a sharp increase in blood pressure. This emergency condition is dangerous to the life of the patient;
- hypertension in the early postpartum period;
- complex therapy of primary glaucoma, ophthalmic diseases accompanied by increased intraocular pressure;
- the relief of withdrawal syndrome in alcohol dependent and drug-dependent patients.
The release form and dosage
The drug is made in tablet form. In one package is 10 tablets. The tool is released only by prescription.
To treat hypertension clonidine is administered in an initial dose 2-3 times a day. If lowering blood pressure does not occur, then the dosage is gradually increased every two days. The average daily dose is 0.3-1 mg.
The negative impact of the drug on the body appears like this:
- sensation of dryness in the mouth and disorders of the digestive functions;
- sedation may be accompanied by transient loss of consciousness, fatigue, increased sleepiness and physical discomfort;
- orthostatic collapse. It is a pathological condition in which there is a sharp drop in blood pressure when changing body position;
- persistent bradycardia (slow heart rate), paresthesia (disturbance of sensation of the skin) and in some cases allergic reactions.
It is forbidden to use the drug in situations listed below.
- Cardiogenic shock. A sharp decline in the contractility of the heart muscle causes a decrease in blood supply to internal organs.
- Chronic hypotension.
- Progressive atherosclerosis of blood vessels of the head and neck.
- Slowing of heart rate and atrioventricular block. These diseases consist in the violation frequency and heart rate.
- Obliteration of the peripheral blood vessels.
- Expressed depressive state.
- Limited use of clonidine is for pregnant women, especially in the first trimester.
Features of use of clonidine
During drug treatment, the patient should monitor blood pressure, especially given the concurrent decline in physical and mental activity. At the initial stage of therapy the patient is prohibited to drive a vehicle and to consume alcoholic beverages.
Abrupt withdrawal of the drug may lead to the development hypertensive crisis. To avoid such complications the treatment ends with a gradual reduction in dose.
The interaction of the drug with other pharmaceuticals
Joint appointment with clonidine antidepressants, and neuroleptics nifedipine reduces the hypotensive effect of therapy. This combination of drugs also increases the sedative effect of clonidine. This tool enhances the effectiveness of pain medication.
An excessive doses of the drug or unmotivated purpose of the medication ends with a collapse (a sharp fall in blood pressure) and loss of consciousness.
src="/poisoning/images/1290-3.jpg">For the treatment of acute poisoning doctors carry out such emergency measures:
- detoxification of the body for emergency removal of toxic substances from the body of the patient;
- recovery of respiratory function and maintaining heart rhythm.
If the patient is in critical condition, he will be hospitalized in the intensive care unit. There the patient is under constant medical supervision.
Compatibility alcohol and clonidine
The main therapeutic property of the drug is based on the dilation of blood vessels. If during this period the person will consume alcoholic beverage, then the components of ethanol actively penetrate into the cells of the brain.
Welcome clonidine and alcohol causes a sharp spasm of blood vessels. The result is rapid and severe intoxication.
After the release of the patient from a state of alcoholic intoxication observed transient retrograde amnesia. A person does not remember events that have passed before drinking.
Alcohol and clonidine, simultaneously acting on the person, cause complex tissue damage to the Central nervous system.
In some cases in excess of the permissible doses of clonidine may occur fatal. The patient's death may be related both to drug overdose and inadequate behavior of a person.