Types of enemas, their formulation and indications
Enema is a diagnostic and treatment manipulation, the essence of which consists in introducing into the lower segment of the colon of various solutions and liquids that is produced with diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Types of enemas depend on their main purpose.
Today classified several varieties, which differ depending on functional purpose and method of production.
Enter to enema only if you have certain skills, technical devices, accurate knowledge of all indications and contraindications for use.
Types of enemas can be very diverse depending on the application purpose, the volume of injected therapeutic fluid, its temperature and composition.
Studying comparative table of the different types of enemas, it is possible to identify the following:
Depending on the texture of fluid enemas are oily or aqueous. The amount of the injected therapeutic fluid procedures are divided into microclysters and standard.
Indications and contraindications to the procedure
Indications for use of enemas depend on the species. Types of enemas and their production, as well as indications for the use of the following:
- The procedure is performed before childbirth, abortion or surgery.
- Disorders of the chair or his prolonged absence.
- In the case of food poisoning.
- Before performing endoscopy.
- Enema is used before various diagnostic procedures.
- Local beneficial effects on the intestine and other organs of the digestive system.
- The General therapeutic effect on the human body.
- Use when contraindicated administration of drugs through the mouth.
- Apply when inflamed large intestine.
- If necessary purgation.
- When the low efficiency of cleansing enemas.
- With extensive edema.
- Used when you need to provide the body with nutrients.
- In case of dehydration.
- In the absence of a receipt of nutrients or medicines through the mouth.
Enema is a popular medical procedure, but she also has an extensive list of contraindications. Klishirovannyh absolutely contraindicated in the following diseases:
- The presence of bleeding from the digestive system.
- Painful cramps in the abdomen unspecified nature.
- Benign or malignant tumors in the cavity of the rectum.
- Hemorrhoids, accompanied by bleeding.
- Intestinal infection and inflammation in the rectal area.
It should be remembered that this medical procedure as an enema, should be administered exclusively by the doctor. You cannot self-medicate, as improper use of enemas can cause serious harm to the body.
Important rules treatments
To conduct klishirovannyh uses a special fixture called a mug Esmarch, made of glass or rubber. This tank may have a volume of from 1 to 2 L.
Definitely need to strictly follow the temperature regime administered drug drug. Tip a mug Esmarch must be sterile. You need to ensure that the introduction of the tip did not experience any unpleasant, painful sensations. In the case of their occurrence the position of the enema to be replaced.
Water or drug should be administered slowly in small portions. With the introduction of the fluid should not be disturbed by painful spasms. One time the introduction of liquid treatment in any case shall not exceed a volume of 2 L.
After the introduction of the enema should take a relaxed position and to behave as quietly, avoiding any sudden movements.
In the case if after setting the enema bowel cleansing has not been achieved, in no case do not immediately carry out a second procedure – this can be done only after the intestine is cleared of content.
As is clear from the name, enema is used to cleanse the intestinal canal and rectum of accumulated stool. Can also be applied to various types of examination of the cavity of the intestine, childbirth, abortion or surgery. In some cases, a cleansing enema is recommended for food poisoning.
Often a cleaning procedure is used prior to conducting x-ray examination of the digestive or urinary system and pelvis.
When the cleansing procedure of the bowel is introduced warm water in a volume of 0.5-2 L. Limit one-time infusion is determined on the basis of age, as well as waist of the patient.
In the case of minimal peristalsis of the intestinal walls can be used in enemas with the use of cool waterfor painful cramps in the stomach and possibly the use of cleansing procedures with warm or hot water.
It should be remembered that when conducting a cleansing enema is emptied solely of the lower segment of the colon. This is due to the strengthened motility of the intestinal walls and subsequent liquefaction of feces.
Laxative procedure is used for constipation and disorders of the chair. It is recommended in the case when the chair the patient is missing for more than 48 hours.
For setting a mug Esmarch used oil composition, or a certain drug, e.g., isothermal, hypertonic solution of sodium chloride. For this reason, in some cases, enemas are also known as hypertension. These medicinal compositions are well liquefy the accumulated fecal mass, not increasing peristalsis of the intestinal walls.
Isothermal hypertonic sodium chloride solution is introduced with a mug Esmarch. After the introduction it is necessary to try to keep at least 25-30 minutes, then you can go to the toilet.
Oil enema is recommended in the evening before bedtime. This is due to the fact that after putting the oil enema is recommended for at least 8-10 hours to spend in a comfortable supine position. Usually, bowel movements occur after 10-11 hours after the procedure.
Medical therapy is used in the case where there is no possibility of the introduction of the essential drug by the oral route. This procedure can be used for a General or systemic therapeutic effect – that is, for positive effects exclusively in the intestine or the entire human body.
A similar procedure is performed in several stages – first you need to do a cleansing enema to rid the intestines of fecal material, and only after that the medical enema. The volume of the drug administered with a mug Esmarch, usually does not exceed 50-100 ml.
Nutrient enema is most often used during the dehydration and, if necessary, receipt of certain nutrients. Through the mucous tissue of the rectum all input of substance is quickly absorbed with the bloodstream and spread throughout the body.
Medical nutrient fluid is introduced at different temperatures depending on their type. In the case of pronounced dehydration recommended the introduction of hot isotonic sodium contributes to fluid replacement in the human body.
The nutrient enema is appropriate when the flow of therapeutic fluid or other substances through the mouth impossible. As in the previous case, it is conducted only after procedures on the colon cleanse.
Today, nourishing treatments are rarely used. This is due to the fact that this procedure is accompanied by a number of difficulties, the lack of necessary skills and equipment.
For setting cleansing enema need a rubber mug douches and about 1-1,5 l of warm water. To improve the liquefaction of fecal matter in the water, you can add a little glycerin or any vegetable oils.
The spray you must fill the prepared composition, the tip to lubricate the baby cream or vaseline. The patient lies on the couch, on your left side, legs bent and slightly tucked up to the body, then into the anus gently inserted the tip. Any discomfort, pain while this should not occur.
After the introduction of the balloon into the anus liquid soft, unhurried movements is introduced into the cavity of the rectum, then the tip of a rubber balloon carefully removed. The patient must try to hold the liquid in themselves at least 10-15 minutes, after which you can go to the toilet.
The same way happens and staging of other types of procedures – the differences are only in the volume of the administered drug. For example, in the case of oil enema is enough to enter into the body of 100-200 ml of oil at room temperature. After 15 minutes a person can go to toilet for bowel movement.
What you need to know
Everyone who heard about the benefits of cleansing enemas or other, must remember that in any case, this medical procedure that it is strongly recommended not to conduct yourself.
Use a mug Esmarch is permitted only in exceptional cases when there is a serious need. Independent and regular procedure is strongly not recommended, as this may cause serious damage to the body.
During the procedure, care must be taken on careful observance of all antiseptic rules – the tip of the rubber balloon must be sterile. After the procedure it should be thoroughly washed with hot water, then treat with an antiseptic solution.
In any case it is not necessary to introduce medicinal liquid fast – it can cause painful spasms in the intestines. The composition is introduced slowly and carefully, in some cases, even drop by drop.
Enemas areeffective medical procedure that helps to restore the health of the rectum and intestines. But it should always be done only by the doctor – in this case, the procedure will bring the maximum benefit to the patient.