Food poisoning in children: symptoms, signs, treatment
Food poisoning in children, poisoning is of poor quality or expired food products, which contain a large number of pathogens. Pathogens are different microbes, and some of them are resistant to changes in temperature. Diseases may have children of different ages, but the younger the child, the harder it flows this disease. Especially seriously ill children of breastfeeding age.
The reasons for the development
Pathogenic microorganisms begin to multiply rapidly in food if they violated the conditions of storage or the technology of cooking. Food poisoning in children is more likely to occur if products have a lot of germs, and they began to excrete toxins.
Toxins called toxic substances which are formed in the process of vital activity of pathogenic microbes, and also at their death. These toxins have a negative impact on the human body, and not the germs that they have identified. For example, we can recall the germ of botulism, which poses no danger to humans, but the toxin that it produces, can lead to death.
There are many pathogenic microorganisms that release dangerous toxins and cause poisoning, they are:
- Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Proteus, Klebsiella, clostridia, enterococci, botulinum and other pathogens. All the toxins of these bacilli can lead to serious diseases;
- all agents of enteric infections – Salmonella, Yersinia, Escherichia coli infection, Shigella.
A sick child, mandatory blood tests of feces and vomit, in addition, opportunities are examined and products that brought about the poisoning. If the specimens, discovered the causative agents of intestinal infection, the diagnosis "poisoning" is removed and is a different diagnosis depending on the selection of the pathogen.
Food poisoning in children most often develops due to consumption of perishable products that are incorrectly prepared or stored. These include meat, dairy products, jelly and jelly, cream cakes, cooked meats, pate, fish and various salads. In infants can develop if a baby was fed expressed breast milk that is improperly stored or low-grade milk mixture.
All meals for children to cook on once or twice to eat, while the rest must keep for in the fridge.
The conditions under which the product can accumulate the toxin
To products have multiplied pathogenic bacteria and accumulated toxins, it is necessary to observe a number of conditions.
Contact the dangerous products of the pathogen. Staph can get into food from festering wounds that are on the hands of man. In dairy products Staphylococcus aureus may be transferred from a sick animal, if the cow or goat purulent mastitis. Botulinum toxin is formed in the canned food both for home and industrial production, in the manufacture of which did not comply with the technology. In addition, many of the pathogens into food through dirty hands, contaminated water, dirty dishes or unwashed vegetables, fruits and berries.
A carrier of pathogens of many dangerous diseases become flies.
Failure to comply with the conditions of storage of food. This happens when people tasted expired products, food that is improperly stored or if the product, for example, milk has long been opened.
A major percentage of diseases in children summer time, when high temperature promotes rapid deterioration of food. Doctors characterize this disease as failure to comply with sanitary-hygienic norms and rules.
Symptoms of the disease
Symptoms of foodborne diseases in children can be different. It depends on the pathogen that entered the body. Especially notable is botulism, in which the patient's condition of the child heavy in the first hours. In addition, it is rather difficult to proceed toxiinfectio and poisoning which caused a staph infection. Characteristic features of diseases of the child are:
- a short incubation period, which can last from a couple hours to 2 days;
- the child gradually impaired General health. There is a weakness, nausea, bloating, accompanied by rumbling and spilled abdominal pain;
- after this, there is copious vomiting, which can not stop a couple of hours. This condition is accompanied by spasmodic pain in the abdomen;
- after the cessation of vomiting diarrhea occurs. The stool is watery and very fetid. Per day desires on the bottom can be up to 15 times;
- increased body temperature that leads to chills and a sick child can be a cold sweat;
- bad headache.
This condition usually lasts up to 3 days, after that the patient gradually recovers. In exceptional cases, the poisoning can give serious complications.
Almost always a complication of diseases is dysbiosis, so after recovery, the child needs to takeprobiotics.
In some cases, the treatment is carried out in a hospital infectious disease ward. This is essential if the disease is too heavy, if the child is too small, if the background of the disease have developed severe dehydration or there are serious complications.
As first aid is carried out such remedial measures, which are aimed at the speedy removal of toxins:
- The patient was washed stomach. At home to perform this manipulation is possible only if the child reached 5 years of age. For rinsing you can use a solution of baking soda or pale solution of potassium permanganate. If these substances are not at hand, it is possible to wash the girl's stomach with plenty of clean water. The procedure is repeated until then, until the waste water will not be completely clean.
Having prepared a solution of potassium permanganate, it is necessary to filter through several layers of cheesecloth to remove undissolved crystals, which can cause burns of the mucous of the digestive organs.
- A sick child is given the adsorbents in the age dosage. If immediately after the making of such medications started vomiting, again the sorbents is given in the same dose.
- If the patient had a fever, then you need to give paracetamol or other antipyretics in therapeutic dose.
- Severe pain in the abdomen a sick child is allowed to give a pill shpy.
If the child is small and his condition is steadily worsening, you need to call the doctor or deliver baby in the hospital on their own. Thus , it is desirable to take samples of vomit and the product that was allegedly caused by the disease.
It is strictly forbidden to give the child antibiotics or antimicrobial agents without prescription!
Complications often occur in infants and children with weakened immune systems. These categories of patients may develop such diseases:
- infectious-toxic shock;
- marked dehydration;
- infectious diseases – pneumonia, otitis media, pyelonephritis, and stomatitis.
If, after the diseases have developed such complications, a sick child, symptomatic treatment, often in hospital.
Prevention of diseases
To prevent poisoning in children must comply with two basic rules – keep all the products in the fridge before use and be sure to boil or to fry. In addition, you need to follow these recommendations:
- Eat only fresh products of good quality.
- To observe technology of preparation of all the dishes.
- It's possible to prepare meals in a few techniques, after cooling, remains necessarily put in the fridge.
- Milk before drinking be sure to boil it. Breast milk can be stored in the cold no more than 12 hours, the milk mixture is prepared at once and the remainder discarded.
- Dairy products such as cottage cheese and sour cream can be stored for not longer than 4 days, then one of these products is better to make a casserole or cheesecakes.
- It is impossible to eat raw eggs and protein cream.
- Sausages before serving, boiled or fried.
- It is necessary to wash hands thoroughly before preparing food, eating, after using the toilet and walking on the street.
- Children cannot give salads, dressed with mayonnaise.
To prevent poisoning, you should buy food only in designated locations that are equipped with refrigeration units. It is forbidden to give children fast food, as well as the products purchased with it. We must remember that to treat poisoning is always more difficult than to warn.