Food poisoning the child's symptoms and treatment
Food poisoning in a child is common and can lead to serious complications. Parents should know it the first signs and basic emergency care. This article discusses in detail the causes and symptoms of food poisoning in children, the rules of first aid to the child, and fundamentals of treatment.
Features of digestive system of the child
According to statistics, more than 70% of all poisonings occur in children. Children are more prone to poisoning than adults. This is due to the features of their body, such as:
- Finally unformed immune system. Immunity finishes his development up to 3 years, and before that age the child more susceptible to infectious diseases.
- Defective intestinal flora. A child is born with a sterile gut, which is in the process of growth and development of the baby is gradually colonized the useful and necessary bacteria. One-year-old kid not even half of the needed for digestion and protection of the bacteria.
- Increased blood flow to the gastric mucosa, through which poisons and toxins are absorbed faster than adults.
- The inability of the kidneys and the baby's liver to deal with toxins, poisons, and quickly remove them from the body. These organs begin to fully function in 2 - 3 years.
- Decreased production of hydrochloric acid. Adults in the acidic stomach through the parietal cells generate hydrochloric acid. The acid neutralizes and destroys toxins and pathogenic bacteria that enter along with food. In 2 years the child starts to happen a full generation of gastric juice.
The main causes and factors of intoxication
Child poisoning develops as a result of eating spoiled or contaminated food by bacteria, or toxic substances.
Listed below are the main reasons that can cause of child poisoning:
- Failure to comply with basic hygiene. The chance of Contracting intestinal bacteria through dirty hands is very large. Children especially love to lick your fingers.
- Consumption of spoiled, defective and contaminated food. Most often, the poisoning of the child is triggered by meat, eggs, dairy products, cakes with protein cream, fish.
- Poisoning in a kindergarten or a manger. It usually is massive, and sick all the children who ate together.
- Casual reception baby poisonous household substances, poisons. These can be detergents, acids, alkalis.
The main symptoms of the disease
Poisoning in children is clinically manifested in the first days. The speed of rise of the symptoms depends on the substance, or microorganism that had poisoned the baby. So, by eating poisons, household chemicals, acids and alkalis, the child's condition is violated immediately, and by eating stale food, symptoms of poisoning may appear only after 20-36 hours.
Please note that in case of poisoning in a child, vomiting and diarrhea can cause rapid dehydration. In order to navigate the amount of lost body fluids, keep in mind the number of episodes of vomiting and liquid stool, and to report these data to the attending physician.
The table below summarizes the main symptoms of poisoning:
|The name of the symptom, the symptom||How does|
|Nausea, vomiting||First in the vomit contain food residues, then it may consist of gastric and bile. Vomiting brings temporary relief.|
|Intoxication||The temperature may rise to 38-39,5 degrees. If a child is poisoned by toxins, chemicals, it can be in the normal range.
The child develops headache, drowsiness, disturbed sleep. The baby becomes cranky, restless.
|Violations of the chair||First, the stool is less formed. Then it can have a watery consistency, change the color, the smell.|
|Flatulence||Manifested increased flatulence, bloating.|
|Pain syndrome||The pain may be localized in the stomach, or spread over the entire area of the abdomen. Children have difficulty accurately indicate the place that hurts, and they just handle the show on his tummy, clutching at him.|
Any poisoning, if not properly treated, can lead to serious consequences. In children complications develop much faster than adults.
For possible complications of poisoning in children are:
- Acetonemic syndrome, which develops in children on the background of abundant vomiting. In the blood increases the level of ketone bodies. the Characteristic feature of this condition is the smell of acetone from a mouth of the patient. In this disorder, observed frequent copious vomiting that leads to dehydration, electrolyte composition of blood.
- Dehydration. Under this condition, the baby becomes listless, pale, skin loses its tone, eyes look sunken in.
- Pancreatitis – inflammation of the pancreas. Appears encircling abdominal pain, flatulence, dyspeptic disorders.
- Acute gastritis develops as a result of ingestion of acids, alkalis, poisons, and chemicals.
The basics of first aid
If a child is poisoned,first aid is provided by parents or other adults who are with him at the moment of appearance of the first symptoms of the disease. The first thing to do is to call the ambulance. While doctors you go to, you should try to clean the stomach and wash out the intestines of your baby.
In case of poisoning with acids and alkalis, to wash the child's stomach is forbidden! Lavage should be carried out through a tube doctors
First aid if poisoning of a child consists of the following components:
- If the child is older than 3 years, you first have to empty the stomach of food residue. To do this, give your child to drink plain carbonated water. The more he can drink the better. Then you need to immediately induce vomiting. This procedure can be repeated several times. Babies up to 3 years, gastric lavage is conducted under the supervision of physicians.
- Cleaning the bowel. Put the baby enema. Use boiled water at room neutral temperature. Do not add to the enema any medication. Do you need an enema before the advent of clean wash water.
- Copious drinking. To prevent dehydration, the child needs to drink little and often. If he is sick, give him 1 teaspoon of liquid every 5 minutes. It is best to drink alkaline mineral water without gas, weak sweet black tea.
- Sorbents. Sorbents are drugs that bind and eliminate intestinal toxins and bacteria. You can use Activated carbon, smectite, Enterosgel, APSCO, Sorbex, Smectite. Carefully read the rules for dispensing these drugs in the instructions.
Arrived the paramedics examine and collect medical history. Parents should describe in detail the symptoms that have been their child, amount of vomiting, diarrhea. Also, it is necessary to remember, that ate the kid on the last day.
If necessary, doctors will the lavage of the stomach and intestines, enter the medicines. If the condition is grave, he can't stop vomiting and diarrhea, you need to be hospitalized to the infectious Department. In cases of poisoning by chemicals, poisons, treatment is carried out in toxicology, or in the intensive care unit.
In the case of termination of vomiting, and the presence of good health in a young patient, it is possible to treat at home. Therapy should be appointed as a district pediatrician. Independently to give the baby some medicine is prohibited. Fast cure for poisoning is possible only with the help of a doctor.
Treatment of poisoning consists of diet, drinking regime and drug therapy. All these components are required.
Child when the poisoning is necessary diet. Diet is necessary to discharge the digestive system. Feed poisoned the kid should start on the first day. Fasting has hurt him.
There is a need in small portions and often. The breaks between meals should not exceed 3 hours. Little to eat even with no appetite.
The first day you can eat liquid rice porridge, app cookies, and dried white bread. On the second day of the diet expands to the following products:
- boiled chicken fillet;
- steam omelet;
- baked apples;
- the vegetable stock.
Then next 7 days you can have virtually all of the products, provided that they are cooked in a double boiler, or welded. Prohibited fried, fatty, smoked foods.
Drinking plenty of fluids is necessary to restore the water reserves of the body. To start to use the baby need in the first hours after onset of symptoms.
Please note that you can't give baby due to his constant vomiting, he needs intravenous fluids to replenish fluid and electrolyte balance in the hospital.
For watering you can use special therapeutic preparations, for example, Regidron. This is an analogue of the physiological solution by which you can make up the loss of body fluids and minerals. It is sold in powder form packaged in single-serve packets. 1 sachet diluted with 1 liter of boiled water.
Also, the baby can be given to drink non-carbonated mineral water sweet black tea. On the second day, in the tea add lemon.
The amount of liquid that you should drink, is calculated by the attending physician. It depends on the weight of the baby, amount of fluid lost.
Drugs are assigned with the purpose of elimination of symptoms, removal of intoxication and anti-infectious agent. Carefully monitor your baby while undergoing treatment, the appearance of an allergic rash – clear reception, and inform the doctor.
If poisoning can be used drugs of the following groups:
- Chelators (Smectite, Activated charcoal, Sorbex) is provided separately from other medicines.
- Antispasmodics help relieve pain, intestinal colic. Drugs: Nosh-PA, Duspatalin.
- Antibiotics – indicated for intestinal infection. Accept no less than 5-7 days.
- The enzymes help to digest food and allow the pancreas to recover. Drugs: Medim, Kreon.
Remember that allmedicines and their dosages are prescribed by the attending physician. To treat the child based on the advice of neighbors, friends or articles on the Internet is prohibited.
Prevention of poisoning
The urgency of preventing poisoning in children is very high. This condition is much easier to prevent than to cure.
The following are some basic guidelines that you can use to avoid poisoning the baby:
- Teach your child to wash hands with soap and water before each meal and after returning from the street. It is very important to dry hands. For children it is better to use disposable paper towels as Terry can be a source of bacteria.
- Cook food for the baby alone, don't buy ready meals in the shops. Buy meat, eggs and dairy products only certified points of sale, try to avoid the spontaneous markets.
- Fruits and vegetables are thoroughly wash before feeding their child.
- Do not give your child products that are safe which are themselves uncertain.
Children are more susceptible to poisoning than adults. This is due to the peculiarities of their food and the immune system. With the development of the first symptoms of food poisoning, you should call the ambulance. Treatment of poisoning can be performed at home or in the hospital. The child needs to comply with bed rest, diet. All medicines must be prescribed by a doctor. Do not self-medicate his child.